Glencoe Health 2005.pdf

The spread of cancer from the point where it

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The spread of cancer from the point where it originated to other parts of the body is called . As cancer cells spread throughout the body, they divide and form new tumors. metastasis malignant benign tumor cancer Reduce your risk of skin cancer by protecting yourself from the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays and reducing the amount of time you spend in the sun. How does each item in the picture help protect you from UV rays?
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Many cancers harm the body because they kill normal cells when they compete with them for nutrients. Tumors put pressure on sur- rounding tissues and organs, interfering with body function. They can also block arteries, veins, and other passages in the body. Types of Cancer ancer can develop in almost any part of the body and in dif- C ferent tissues of each part. Figure 26.3 shows some types of cancers, grouped according to the body organs where they first develop. Cancers also can be classified according to the tissues they affect. Lymphomas are cancers of the immune system. Leukemias are cancers of the blood-forming organs. Carcinomas are cancers of the glands and body linings, including the skin and the linings of the digestive tract and lungs. Sarcomas are cancers of connective tissue, including bones, ligaments, and muscle. Risk Factors for Cancer bnormal cells that have the potential to become cancer cells A are produced every day and the immune system destroys most of them. If the immune system becomes weakened or the number of cancer cells becomes overwhelming, cancer may develop. In some cases normal cells change by themselves. In others a faulty gene may have been inherited; between 5 to 10 percent of cancers are hereditary. The majority of cancers are caused by exposure to certain factors that increase the risk of cell damage. One factor is a carcinogen (car-SIN-uh-juhn), a cancer-causing substance . Examples of carcino- gens are cigarette smoke and ultraviolet light. Several major risk factors for cancer are associated with lifestyle behaviors. It is esti- mated that about 60 percent of all cancers can be prevented through healthy lifestyle choices. Tobacco Use Tobacco use is the major cause of cancer deaths in the United States and the most preventable. Recent studies attribute nearly one in five deaths to smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke. About 87 percent of lung cancer deaths are caused by smoking. An additional 25 percent of females who smoke will die of other smoking-related diseases. Tobacco use also increases the risk of bladder, pancreas, and kidney cancers. At least 43 different car- cinogens have been identified in tobacco and tobacco smoke. 682 Chapter 26 Noncommunicable Diseases and Disabilities immune system For more information about the immune system, see Chapter 24, page 628.
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