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-Colonel Cuter led an expedition into the sacred Black Hills of the Sioux-In doing so he disregarded the treaty of 1868-Custer eager for glory arrived at Little Big Horn and heard a native village near by-He attacked only to find that there were about 12,000 Sioux and Cheyenne-Custer and 250 of his men were killedChapter 18: Come WestThe New South and the Trans-Mississippi West (First half)I.The Southern Burdena.Agriculture in the New Southa.i.Despite talk of industry after the Civil War, the South remained agriculture based, harvesting crops including tobacco, rice, sugar and cotton. a.ii.Decrease in farm size across the South, reflecting the breakup of large plantations.b.Tenancy and Sharecroppingb.i.The “agricultural ladder”: theory that any poor man could work his way up, eventually owning his own land.b.ii.Tenants would rent parcels of land from landowners and as rent the tenant would turn over a portion of the harvest to the landowner. b.ii.1.Would often result in enough profit to purchase own land over time.c.Southern Industryc.i.(1869-1909) Industrial production grows faster in the South than the national rate due to advances in cotton textiles, tobacco and laying of improved railroads making transportation from the North to the South much easier.c.i.1.Tobacco consumption nearly quadruples between 1860 and 1900 due to advertising of cigarettes.d.Timber and Steeld.i.Overcutting of timber results in negative economic and environmental impacts.d.ii.Birmingham Steel, expected to be very successful, is sold to the U.S. Steel Corporation in 1907, resulting in another lost opportunity for the South. e.Sources of Southern Povertye.i.Late start to industrializatione.ii.Lack of proper educatione.ii.1.Abundance of jobs available for unskilled laborersII.Life in the New Southa.Segregationa.i.As African Americans move into Southern cities and towns to compete with poor whites for employment, whites worked to maintain superiority by working around the Fourteenth Amendment.a.i.1.Hotels and railroads were not considered “public” institutions since owned privately, and therefore resulted in unequal treatment.a.i.2.Within 20 years every southern state established segregation as a law.a.i.3.Jim Crow Laws drew lines separating people by race in various gathering places such as hospitals and restaraunts.III.Western Frontiersa.Native Americans
a.i.Cultures shaped by nature and the ecosystem each tribe resided in. Lived off the land; hunting and gathering.b.Competing Visionsb.i.1868- Congress grants western settlers free land under the Homestead Act of 1862 and a transcontinental railroad. b.i.1.William Gilpin believed the West to be limitless in its resources.b.i.1.a.Developed popular notion that “rain follows the plow”b.i.2.