State supreme court b high courts general

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State supreme court b. High Courts – “general jurisdiction” superior courts or circuit courts can hear any criminal case b.i.1. Empowered by law to hear criminal case whether minor or serious b.i.2. Utilized fact-finding foundation known as “Adversarial Process” b.i.2.a. Adversarial process pits the State’s interest (prosecution) against the defendants (defense lawyer) c. Federal Court System – formed by congress and authorized by the Constitution c.i. Article III, Section I of the Constitution c.ii. Handle proceeding that take place in Guam, the Virgin Islands and Canal Zone, and the Mariana Islands c.iii. Four tier system, with courts of each type of jurisdiction c.iii.1. US District Courts – court of general jurisdiction, intended mostly to try federal criminal cases c.iii.2. Federal Appeals court c.iii.3. US Supreme Court – “court of last resort”… know this (appeals court) c.iv. US Magistrates – federal court officials limited jurisdiction and power to misdemeanors, setting bail, and assisting higher federal courts in legal matters …. know what the magistrate does d. Roles of Courts d.i. Adjudicate on matters that are brought before the court, d.i.1. including pre-trial motions, d.i.2. bail hearings d.i.3. criminal trials d.i.4. responsible for sentencing and interpreting constitutional rights d.ii. U.S. Supreme Court – highest court in the nation - plays an important role is judicial review in interpreting constitution d.ii.1. Has jurisdiction over federal appeals court, state court of appeals, District Court of appeals, and the Supreme court of Puerto Rico d.ii.2. Main role is judicial review decisions of lower courts and government agencies d.ii.3. Gideon vs Wainright (1963) suspects were entitled to a lawyer 6 th Amendment even if they could not afford one…. k now this d.ii.4. Appeals to the US Supreme Court are allowable only if it can be shown that the defendant’s federal Constitutional rights were breached d.ii.5. Also deals with disputes between two states and attorney disbarment, and matters relating to ambassadors
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d.ii.5.a. Has 9 justices who are named by the President that must be confirmed by the Senate d.ii.5.b. One chief justice and eight associates, nomination is for a lifelong term d.iii. Writ of Certiorari – issued when at least 4 Supreme Court Justices decide (called the Rule of Four) that a case has merit for consideration, the writ of certiorari is issued so that the High Court can review the full record of the case and make its final decision d.iii.1. Supreme court can affirm a case, uphold the lower court’s decision or reverse the case d.iii.2. If the Supreme court decides to remand a case to the original jurisdiction, it only means the judgment wasn’t correct and needs to be redone, not to let free the offender d.iv.
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