●Marshall adopted a broad interpretation of this elastic clause: “Let the end be legitimate, let it be withinthe scope of the constitution, and all means which are appropriate, which are plainly adapted to that end,which are not prohibited, but consist with the letter and the spirit of the constitution, are constitutional.”○The Court clearly agreed that Congress had the power to charter a bank; but did the states have the power to tax the bank?■Arguing that “the power to tax involves the power to destroy,” Marshall insisted that a state could not tax thenational government because the bank represents the interests of the whole nation; a state may not tax those it doesnot represent. Therefore, a state tax that interferes with the power of Congress to make law is void.10
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Public Opinion and the Media:●How do the Majoritarian and Pluralist models view public opinion?○Majoritarian Model:the government should do what the majority of the public wants.○Pluralist Model:the public does not demonstrate clear, consistent opinions, and the government should instead listen to interestgroups.●Socialization and the principles of socialization (primacy and structuring principles).○F●Agents of socialization.○Key Agents of Socialization:■Family.■School.■Community and Peers.●Social groups and political values/Gender Gap (who are more likely to support different policies? Who is more likely to be liberal orconservative?)○1) People with lesseducation support government action to guarantee jobs.○2) People with moreeducation oppose government action to guarantee jobs.○3) Therefore, people with lesseducation tend to favor equality.○4) And, people with moreeducation tend to favor freedom.○5) All minoritygroups are more likely than whites to support government action to improve economic opportunity.○6) Therefore, most members of minoritygroups tend to favor equality over freedom, and freedom over order.○7)Women are more likelythan men to favor government action to promote equality.●Roles and functions of the media.○Functions of the Media:■Reporting the news.■Interpreting and presenting the news.●Where the public gets news.●Influencing knowledge and opinions.■Setting the political agenda.■Socializing the citizenry.●Television hypothesis.○Television hypothesis: the belief that television is to blame for the low level of citizens’ knowledge about public affairs.●Horserace, watchdog, and market-driven journalism.○Horserace journalism:election coverage by the mass media that focuses on which candidate is ahead rather than on nationalissues.■The media coverage becomes primarily a matter of which candidate is leading in the polls and who has raised themost money.
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