Members with more income or power are better able to

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members with more income or power are better able to exercise their wills, or to achieve desired goals or outcomes o Time availability hypothesis sees housework allocation as negotiated process but not so much based on power or utility maximization Crittenden ( The Mommy Tax ) o Mothers=most disadvantaged people in workplace o Younger the mom and more kids she has, higher her tax will be, which explains why women having less children, later in life, almost everywhere o Working moms earn less than childless women Why? Some say are less productive—this is unproven Improvements in gender inequality o Social transformation : weakened patriarchal values Economic transformation: change to service economies empowered women o Social movements : have mobilized population and pressured politicians to change laws Suffrage Laws allowing men to receive time off for childbirth, to promote equal pay with men, etc. o Policy : public childcare allows men to focus more on work; laws enforce equal pay and rights Sexual assault not always about gratification All forms involve domination and humiliation as principal motives Social situations increase rate of sexual aggression—war, frats, athletics  Sexual assault highest in situations where early socialization experiences predispose men to want to control women, where norms justify domination of women, and where big power imbalance between men and women exists  2 types of sexual harassment o Quid pro quo (“something for something”) sexual harassment: takes place when sexual threats or bribery are made a condition of employment decision o Hostile environment sexual harassment: involves sexual jokes, comments, and touching that interferes with work or creates unfriendly work environment Powerless women more likely to be harassed (unmarried, temporary workers)  Daily patterns of gender domination viewed as legit by most, built into our courtship, sexual, family, and work norms o As result, aggressive behavior encounters less notice when male to female Gender inequality=foundation of aggression against women  Gender employment measure computed by UN, takes into account women’s share of seats in Parliament; women’s share of administration, managerial, professional, and technical jobs; and women’s earning power Score of 1 means equality with men on all 3 dimensions o Norway, Sweden, Denmark most gender-egalitarian More gender equality in rich than poor countries 2 policy initiatives required to bridge gender gap in earnings: better child-care system and policy of “equal pay for work of equal value” o Childcare High-quality, government subsidized, affordable childcare not available in Canada yet Many women unable to work outside of home or do but on part-time basis o Equal pay for work of equal value
Equal pay for work of equal value: refers to the equal monetary value of different jobs; it’s established in gender-neutral terms by comparing jobs in terms of the education and

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