council continues to exist but no longer holds annual sessions. Possibilities for Reform Faced with escalating demands that challenge the very principles on which the organization is founded, and saddled with structures that no longer reHect the power realities of the international system, it is not surprising that the call for U.N. reform has been a loud and persistent one. Reforming the United Nations to participate more ef- fectively in peaee and security issues requires reorganization of both the Security Council and the office of the secretary-general. The "Report of the Panel on U.N. Peace Operations" (popularly known as the Brahimi Report, 2000) is the latest high-level attempt to evaluate peace and secu- rity operations. Among the proposals are calls for member states to form ''':'. P } ) ) }) "" );t ) ... ,Y ., , / :, 236 Cll. ~J TilE \lUEST IOIt (;1,011/\1. (;(J"I:H:\\0:<:I: ~ j , / , 1 ) '" ':'~ ~~ ",J/ ~ ; ~ pi.;' \:' ;1/ ~ » " l' ;';"Y J .) fl '\ ...;"
238 CII. 9 TilE QUEST FOR GLOBAL GOVERNANCE to the regular budget, which dipped to below 25 percent of total. Its ar- rears grew to between $1 billion and $1.7 billion. As a result, the United States lost its seat on the budget committee and almost lost its vote in the General Assembly. In November 1999, the Helms-Eiden legislation was passed, permitting U.S. arrears to be paid in three installments, when specific conditions were met. This example of U.S. micro-management has isolated the United States from both allies and the majority of U. N. member states. To address the financial problems, the members must pay, on time, and with penalties for late fees. New sources of revenue must be devel- oped. But even more important, states must renew their commitment to provide leadership .. The. role of the United States will be determining, as one observer pointed out: The problem is not the system of coIIective security, or even its lack of re- sources. Rather it is the reluctance of the most influential member states-the United States first among them-to use it. Our thinking has still not adjusted to the realities of the post-Cold War world. If the member states see a U.N. that looks timid, weak, even anemic, it is in large part because they are look- ing at a reflection of their own policies. It is also because they are looking through myopic perspectives shaped by the history-not the potential-of internationalism. 13 Reforms need to occur. "Fictitious forms cannot preserve an order now past, and international organizations that refuse to adapt to the new real- ity may do so at their institutional peril.,,14 - .. Even with reform, the United Nations will probably be a less central player thanit has been in the past because states can turn to alternative IGOs, anClnew ~fltities, ~amely NGOs, are becoming increasinglysalient. REALIST VIEWS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AND ORGANIZATION Realists are skeptical about both international law and international orga- nizations, though they do not completely discount their role. Recall that realists see anarchy in the international system, wherein each state is forced to act in its own self-interest and obliged to rely on self-help mech- anisms. International law purportedly creates some order, as many realists