Doctoral-level registered nurses (n3) completed the assess-ments. Each had significant experience (at least 2 years) workingwith women who have experienced IPV, and each followed asafety and retention protocol during the assessments (McFarlane,2007). Assessment measures were administered verbally, in themother’s preferred language (English or Spanish), at a time andlocation that was safe and convenient for the mothers. The major-ity of participants completed the survey in English (n217;72%). Prior to the start of the study, measures were translated fromEnglish to Spanish by a native Spanish speaker and then wereback-translated to English by a native English speaker. Internalconsistency coefficients were similar across the English and Span-ish versions of the measures, and there were no differences atbaseline on measured demographics (with the exception of ethnic-ity) or study variables between participants who completed themeasures in English and Spanish.At 5 years, 276 mothers (92%) had completed all study mea-sures at each of the 16 assessment points. Among the 24 mothersThis document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.606JOURILES ET AL.
without complete data, eight had withdrawn from the study, 15were lost to follow-up, and one had died. Data that were availablefor these 24 mother–child dyads were used in analyses. There wereno differences in demographic or study variables between the 276mothers who had participated in each of the 16 assessments andthe 24 mothers who had not (ps.05), but a greater proportion ofwomen who did not complete all 16 assessment points wererecruited from shelters compared with the district attorney’s office,2(1)4.91,p.027.MeasuresAll measures used in this study were collected at all 16 timepoints.Mothers’ PTSSs.Mothers reported PTSSs over the previous4 months on a 7-item screening scale forDiagnostic and StatisticalManual of Mental Disorders(4th ed.;American Psychiatric As-sociation, 1994) posttraumatic stress disorder (Breslau, Peterson,Kessler, & Schultz, 1999). Mothers responded to items by indi-cating either “yes” or “no,” and items (0no, 1yes) weresummed to yield a PTSSs score with a possible range of 0 to 7.This scale has concurrent validity with a full diagnostic interviewin clinical (Kimerling et al., 2006) and community (Bohnert &Breslau, 2011;Breslau et al., 1999) samples. Coefficient alpha inthe present sample ranged from .70 to .79 across the 16 assess-ments.Children’s externalizing and internalizing problems.Mot-hers reported on child externalizing and internalizing problemsover the previous 4 months on the Child Behavior Checklist(CBCL), Age 1.5 to 5 years and Age 6 to 18 years (Achenbach &Rescorla, 2000). Mothers indicated the extent of child problems ona 3-point scale (0not true, 1somewhat or sometimes true,and 2very true or often true).Tscores were used in analyses.
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American Psychological Association, Mothers, PTSSs