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No child left behind o2.o3.•4. The Commerce ClauseLocal Governments: see table page 39•1. Power derived from or delegated by the states•2. Practically what is the ordinary level of state supervision of the municipalities?
•May vary widely across political subcultures: geographic region, race, gender, religion, peer group, etc•Changes over timeTypes of Political Cultures:Daniel Elazar: •Individualistic•Moralistic•TraditionalisticAlmond and Verba•Parochial•Subject•ParticipantAccording to the book, what are our major political values in the U.S.?What is the effect of political culture on policy formulation and implementation? •Forward looking or looking to the past (See the comment on “time” p. 43)•Level and type of citizen participationCommon values and beliefs shape not only what citizens think government should do, but also shape the way that citizens try to affect policy outputs and outcomes.Socio-economic Conditions: How they (it) influence political activity (example=who votes?)•Public policy arises from conflict between groups (regulatory and redistributive policies especially). •It is often the weaker group that turns to government for solutions. oLabor unions=minimum wagesoConsumer groups=hazardous productsRelationships between groups change when social or economic conditions change. Policies are ALWAYS impacted by the amount of $$ available, who is pushing for change , and what policy response is desired.•Industrialization, rapid growth of large businesses == Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)•Import dumping ==The Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (1988)•Scarcity of resources == health insurance, food stamps•Social changes: Vietnam and the Civil Rights Movement**The unequal distribution of resources between the state and national governments and unequal resources available between states make for fragmented and decentralized policy responses.
**There is a great deal of conflict among scholars about whether economics, social changes, or politics is the most important driver of policy changes. See Dye, p. 46, discussion of cloning, page 47, and discussion of genetically modified foods, p. 48.