In 2013, Alaviani et al. conducted a quasi-experimental study based upon a multi-strategy program founded upon Pender’s Health Promotion model. Convenience sampling with balanced block randomization was used to assemble a sample population consisting of 150 women between the ages of 60-74 years. This sample populace was split into two groups: intervention and control. Data was collected through the completion of questionnaires and analyzed by descriptive statistics. Multiple nursing interventions were initiated, including the addition of a friendship enrichment program. Findings suggest that maintaining interpersonal relationships decreases feelings of loneliness and increases self-efficacy.
DR. NOLA PENDER NURSE THEORIST 16 Data Collection Instruments* Appendix 1 The Socio-demographic Characteristics Information Form The adapted versions of Health Belief Model Scale Attitude Scale regarding the Early Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer Self-efficacy Scale Healthy Life Style Behaviors Scale Health Responsibility Sub-scale Information Form related to Previous Behaviors consisting of four questions (which has been prepared by the researchers by consulting Nola Pender have been used to collect data) (Ersin & Bahar, 2017) *Article: Effects of nursing interventions planned with the health promotion models on the breast and cervical cancer early detection behaviors of the women
DR. NOLA PENDER NURSE THEORIST 17 P ower Point Overview Background Dr. Nola Pender, nursing theorist, received her Bachelor of Science in nursing in 1964 and a human growth and development master’s degree in 1965 from Michigan State University. In 1969 she received two Ph.D. degrees in psychology and education from Northwestern University in Illinois (University of Michigan website, n.d.). While in school Pender started perceiving health and nursing in a different way. She recognized the objective of nursing care as health at its finest (Butts & Rich, 2015). Dr. Pender in 1975, made the model for preventive health behavior available to the public then her health promotion model was initially seen in 1982 in the original publication of Health Promotion in Nursing Practice. This model’s basis comes from the social learning theory composed by Albert Bandura and was guided by the theory of reasoned action by Fishien (Butts & Rich, 2015).The model was updated in the 1980’s and the last update was in 1996 ("Nola Pender," n.d.). Dr. Pender’s health promotion model was identified as a middle range integrative theory. . It was identified as a middle range theory because it represents the multidimensionality of people interrelating with their personal and physical surroundings as they practice health while incorporating constructs from expectancy-value theory and social cognitive theory with a nursing view of complete individual functioning (Butts & Rich, 2015).
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