berlin invaded by Russians, national library burning Soldier picked up random book from ruins Realized mayan hieroglyphs were not just numerical signs Tatiana read stones Others started deciphering found names & dates of kings Stories in glyphs 15 years after finding skeleton lord pakow lord of city state ruled for almost 70 years one of most powerful in history of Americas vast land ruled with arrogance & disdain power origin trail of blood, knife made from stingray spine, rope of thorns comprehend power of kings every portal in every mayan temple doorway to underworld inside temple duty of king & queen to blood of god that made humans king = god blood power sacrifice to god blood from genitals of queen & king gods cause sun to rise, rain to fall, corn to grow if royal blood sacrificed new world soul (passed on for generations) eternal resides in blood most powerful sacrifice blood when king gives blood most powerful substance on earth generations of kings blood more potent we have it easy give money mayans sacrifice give blood even bloodier sacrifice skull racks from captive sacrifice ball game losers sacrificed to gods reveled in terror scalped, disemboweled, hands & feet bound, lit on fire today mayan shamans still perform blood sacrifice blood of chickens Christianity forced upon mayan but hit deep chord Blood of kings mortar that bound things together
King center of universe, remove king, everything comes crashing down Authority based upon belief failure unacceptable Losses in war, failure in crops, overpopulation King was responsible When people lost faith, kings lost power Durkheim’s Organic vs. Mechanical Solidarity Theory Mechanical brings people together puts artificial title to build solidarity Types of Exchange Systems Reciprocity three types Generalized neither of value of gift calculated nor time of repayment specified Repayment may not be expected becomes Golden Rule What’s mine is yours, what’s yours is mine Nobody rises above anybody else Some cultures use this as a balancing/leveling mechanism Balanced value & time of repayment specifically considered Example Kula Ring: exchange based on ceremonial exchange of valued shell ornaments connects island without speech Red shell necklaces flow clockwise White shell armbands flow counterclockwise Negative take without thought of fair return; get something for nothing or less than it’s worth Redistribution goods flow into central place where they are sorted, counted, & reallocated Market or Commercial buying & selling goods & services Currency/money certain objects to symbolize & measure social value of other objects or labor Political Organization & Maintenance of Order Political organization way power embedded & distributed in society; integrated with all other cultural subsystems, but also a mechanism for interaction between cultures Classifying Societies 4 levels of complexity Bands
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- Fall '08