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Connects stomach to posterior abdominal wall very

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connects stomach to posterior abdominal wall (very roundabout)dorsal mesenterylesser omentummouthpharynxoesophagusstomach• duodenum• jejenum• ileumsmallintestine• caecumascending colontransverse colon• descendingcolon• sigmoidlargeintestineanus
Figure 2 Textbook Figure 23.17aStomach regionsa.Cardia (cardiac region)ring-shaped zone encircling the cardiac orificeopening of oesophagusb.Fundusc.dilated superior part relate to the left dome of diagram Bodylargest region between the fundus & antrumd.Pylorus (funnel-shaped region)connects to duodenum via sphincterPyloric antrum – widerPyloric canal – narrowerPyloric sphincter – controls the entry of chyme into the intestineInternal SurfaceMucosa – reddish brownpyloric part – pinkempty stomach (contracted) – contains numerous longitudinal folds of mucosa = rugaeallows for distensionMicroscopic AnatomyLining of the stomach – simple columnar epitheliummucus-secreting surface epithelium
secrete mucus which protects the stomach wall from destructive effects of acidand pepsin in the lumenMuscosa – surface of the stomachgastric pitsgastric glandsSubmucosablood vesselsnerves – Meissner’s submucosal plexuscollagen & elastic fibersMuscularis Externathree layers of smooth muscle1)Inner oblique2)Middle circular3)Outer longitudinal layerAuerbach’s myenteric nerve plexus – between circular & longitudinal musclelayersSerosaloose CT surrounded by mesotheliumencloses the stomachGastric glands – contain 3 types of secretory cellsmucous neck cellsparietal cellsproduce the stomach’s HCLsecrete gastric intrinsic factor – a protein necessary for the absorption of vitaminB12by the small intestinechief cell (zymogenic cells)produce and secrete the enzymatic protein pepsinogen, which is activate topepsinApplied AnatomyPeptic ulcerdigestive enzymes erode stomach wallgastrectomy esp. for pylorustreated with vagotomy (↓ gastric secretions)Stomach cancermost common lethal cancerpalpable in body/pylorusgastroscopy usedextensive lymphatic drainage – surgical problemIII. Small Intestinefills the peritoneal cavityfrom pyloric valve to ileocaecal valvelongest part of alimentary canalPrimary rolea.absorption (90%)during digestion, the small intestine undergoes active segmentation movementsshuffling the chime back and forth and thereby maximizing its contact withnutrient-absorbing mucosab.enzymatic digestionthe digestive enzymes are secreted by the pancreas
Microscopic Anatomyhuge surface area for absorption provided by its great lengthwall of the small intestine has 3 structural modifications that amplify its absorptivesurface:plicae circulares /circular folds

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