BIOL
Bio Mid Term 1 Study Notes.docx

The cilia and flagella movement walks towards the

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the cilia and flagella movement; walks towards the minus end of the cell ii. Kinesin carries molecules, vesicles, and organelles travelling along the microtubule; walks in the plus end of the cell iii. Myosin moves along the plus end of the actin molecule and slide the actin filaments, which allows for muscle contractions iv. All of these motor proteins require the hydrolysis of ATP 13.Cells of Archaea vs. Eukaryotes vs. Bacteria a. Eukyarotic cells are much larger and contain organelles along with a nucleus b. All of these cells may contain cell walls c. Bacteria contain plasmids, which are extra-chromosomal circular DNA d. Eukaryotic DNA is arranged in a double helix structure, whereas prokaryotic DNA is arranged in a circle e. Some Eukaryotes and some bacteria are heterotrophs, autotrophs, or phototrophs, archaea are generally chemotrophs 14.Theory of Evolution: all organisms originated from a common ancestor. Over time, adaptations to the environment caused different traits to appear in a species and these traits lingered around as a result of natural selection. 15.Natural selection is the process by which certain traits appear in a population of organisms and whichever traits provide an advantage to survival in the
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environment allow the organism with such trait to survive and spread these traits to its offspring. 16.There are many theories to explain how eukaryotic cells emerged. One certain theory suggests that a prokaryotic organism engulfed, but did not digest, another prokaryotic organism and thus the two lived together. Over time these two organisms fused and became more complex, thus leading to eukaryotic cells being formed. The chloroplasts and mitochondria are proposed to have emerged this way. Energy and Enzymes: Endergonic: when the change in free energy is positive Exergonic: when the change in free energy is negative Free energy: potential energy in a system that is able to do work, equal to ΔG = ST - ΔH Activated carrier molecule: molecule that requires energy to transport molecules that are too large to enter by themselves through the membrane Activation Energy: energy required to start a chemical reaction Active site: the area on an enzyme where the chemical reaction occurs Substrate: molecule that binds to the active site of the enzyme in order to be catalyzed to undergo a chemical reaction necessary for the production of a protein Reactants: one or more molecules that are found at the beginning of the reaction Cofactor: organic/inorganic nonprotein group that is necessary for catalysis to take place, often metals that bind to the enzyme Coenzyme: cofactors that are derived from vitamins Enzyme inhibitor: binds to the enzyme when there is too much protein being made o Competitive inhibition: binds directly to the allosteric site, blocking the substrate from binding to the enzyme o Non-competitive inhibition: binds to the enzyme regardless of the substrate binding to the enzyme or not, the inhibitor then converts
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