--next, he asked the New Guineans to show on their faces how they would feel if they were the person in the stories; he filmed their expressions and took them back to the US to see if Americans could identify the emotions; he concluded that they were accurate, except that they tended to confuse fear and surprise.Ekman and Friesen (1975) then extended this work to several other cultures and concluded that the recognition of these 6 emotions is universal--not everyone has agreed; there has been controversy on this issue (as discussed in the textbook).Ekman did acknowledge one limit on universality, namely that each culture has display rules, meaning rules about what is appropriate in terms of the facial expression of emotion.Four display rules:Intensification: showing a more intense emotion on your face than what you actually feelDe-intensification: showing a milder emotion on your face than what you actually feelNeutralizing: trying not to show any emotion on your face, regardless of what you are feelingMasking: showing on your face the opposite of what you are feeling.Lecture 2: Other Channels of Nonverbal Communication1.Eye contact: we use another person’s frequency and pattern of eye contact as information about what that person is feeling; if that person is making a high level of contact we assume that s/he is in a positive state; if the person is making a low level of eye contact, we assume that s/he is in a negative state--we also use another person’s frequency and pattern of eye contact to figure out how the person feels about us. Generally, we interpret a high level of eye contact as friendliness and a low level as dislike
Experiment: Kleinke et al. (1974) had participants watch a video of a man and woman (actors) having a conversation. In one version of the video, the man and woman were told to make a lot of eye contact; in the other version, were told to make a low level of eye contact--participants were told that the woman and man were an engaged couple; they were asked how much they love/like each other and the chances of a successful marriage--participants in the high eye contact condition rated the couple as higher in love/liking and as having a greater chance of a successful marriage than participants in the low eye contact condition.--generally, we like it if people make a lot of eye contact with us, but not if their eye contact is continuousand doesn’t change regardless of what we do (i.e., staring)-people feel physiological arousal when they are stared at and try to escape it.Experiment: Greenbaum & Rosenfeld (1978). A male confederate was stationed on a boulevard and told to either stare or not stare at drivers who had to stop when the light turned red.Hidden observers recorded the speed with which the drivers left the intersection when the light turned green. Those who were stared at left the interaction much more quickly than those who were not stared at.