During mantle differentiation relatively light

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- During mantle differentiation, relatively light elements such as Si, O, Al, K, Na, Ca, C, N, H, and He rose to the surface to form the crust, seawater and atmosphere. - Continental crust did not become stable until about 3.9 - 4.1 billion years ago, almost half a billion years after formation of the core and mantle.
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Differentiation of the Earth Crust : rocky outer “skin” of the Earth, Heterogeneous Silica-rich Oceanic Crust 3 - 10 km thick; 3.0 g/cm 3 Continental Crust 35-40 km thick; 2.7 g/cm 3 Mantle : rocky inner layer of the Earth. Silica-poor. Flows! 2885 km thick More homogeneous Density 3.5 to 5.5 g/cm 3 Core : metallic center. Iron alloy Outer Core = 2270 km thick Liquid! 10-12 g/cm 3 density Inner Core = 1220 km thick Solid, 13 g/cm 3 density
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Differentiation of the Earth. Earth’s Layered Structure Base of the lithosphere marked by the upper boundary of the asthenosphere The asthenosphere consists of partly molten (~3% partial melt) mantle material
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Nuclear reactions formed the elements in the sun and solar system
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Earth pCO 2 = 0.0003 bar Surface T = 16°C Venus pCO 2 = 90 bar Surface T = 460°C Mars Very thin atmosphere Surface T = -55°C “Goldilocks” The earth is unique among the planets in its chemical composition, abundant surface water, and oxygen-rich atmosphere
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Mercury
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Venus
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Mars
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Europa
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Earth
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The physical and chemical Earth has been made - a peculiar molecule will begin its rise as the ruler of Earth surface
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