Starvation the ketone bodies substitute glucose in

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starvation, the ketone bodies substitute glucose in supplying brain with energy. • Ketone bodies are converted to acetyl-CoA in a pathway involving three enzymes. • Ketone bodies are water-soluble. They easily circulate in the blood.
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Fig. 19-21 Synthesis of Acetoacetate
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Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids • Fatty acids are synthesized by condensation of C 2 units. This process is the reverse of β -oxidation. • Biosynthesis of fatty acids occurs in the cytosol when the body does not need ATP. • The growing fatty acid is attached to acyl-carrier protein , ACP, via a thioester bond. Malonyl-CoA is an intermediate of fatty acid biosynthesis - OOC-CH 2 -C(O)-CoA In all anabolic pathways, major cofactors are NADP + and NADPH (not NAD + and NADH). • The biosynthesis requires Acetyl-CoA , which is transported from the mitochondrion to the cytosol in the form of citrate.
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