BIOL
Review_Biol 1308 Unit Exam II_spring 2017.docx

Strong acids completely dissociate not reversible

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- strong acids completely dissociate (not reversible) - weak acids dissociate, but not completely (reversible) 8 Biol 1308
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8. Define the term base . a substance that dissociates in water and decreases the H+ ion concentration and increases the OH- concentration of the solution 9. Identify examples of bases/alkalines in our everyday lives. baking soda, tums, house cleaners, eggs 10.Compare the two ways that bases can decrease the H+ ion concentration (directly vs. indirectly). directly- picks up H+ -weak bases indirectly- decreases H+ by indirectly picking up H+ 11.Compare the properties of acids and bases. acids - increase [H+] when in water - sour - corrodes metal - conductor bases - decreases the [H+] when placed in water and increases [OH-] - tastes bitter and chalky - feels slippery - conductor 12.Identify examples of neutral substances in our everyday lives. - distilled water - sugar - salt 13.Identify each of the following as either acids or bases: HCl H 2 CO 3 NaOH NH 3 14.Summarize how the pH scale relates to the H + and OH - concentration of a solution. - higher pH level = basic and fewer H+ - lower pH level = acid and more H+ - pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution 15.Compare acids and bases in terms of their H + and OH - concentrations. - higher [H+] = acid - higher [OH-] = base 9 Biol 1308
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16.Describe the concentration of H + and OH - concentrations in pure water. [H+] = [OH-] 17. Identify the pH of pure water. 7- neutral 18.State the change in H + concentration for each change in pH number. When given 2 solutions with different pH’s, be able to determine how many times more or less the H + ion concentration of one of the solutions is compared to the other solution. Logarithmic Scale: - a change of one whole number represents a ten-fold (10x) change in the number of H+ ions - 10x acidic or 1/10 basic 19.Define the term denaturation if a pH around a protein changes too much, the protein will fall apart 20.Describe what happens to proteins in the cell when the pH of the cells is drastically altered (include what ion can denature proteins). H+ ion can denature proteins 21.When given a graph that plots the activity of an enzyme vs. the pH of the environment, be able to determine the optimum pH. (Try example below. What is optimal pH of arginase?) 10 Biol 1308
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22.Indicate the pH range of each of the following: strong acid = 0-1.9 moderate acid = 2-4.9 weak acid = 5-6.9 neutral substance = 7 weak base = 7.1-8.9 moderate base = 9-11.9 strong base =12-14 23.Describe how buffers work to maintain the original pH of a solution. - if the pH becomes too acidic, the buffer acts like a base and accepts (picks up) H+ ions - if the pH becomes too basic, the buffer acts like an acid and accepts OH- ions 24.Write the equation that summarizes the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system: 25.Define the term salt . - are substances that when added to water dissociate into cations and anions, neither are H+ or OH- ions - formed in the neutralization reaction ex: 26.When given a reaction in which a substance is placed in water, determine whether the substance is a salt, acid, or base. (Try the examples below.) KCl + H 2 O - K + + Cl - KOH + H 2 O - K + + OH - CaCO 3 + H 2 O - Ca +2 + CO 3 2- E.g. HCl + H 2 O - H + + Cl - 27.Define the term neutralization reaction .
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  • Fall '12
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