learning (Social Learning Theory) Classical Conditioning ● Watson - Influenced by Pavlov - Theoretical goal of science of psychology is prediction and control of behavior ● Behaviorism 1. Psychology should be an objective science that 2. Studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Psychologists tend to agree with 1. , but generally not with 2. ● Pavlov - Studied digestive system; first Russian Nobel Prize (1904) - Demonstrated associative learning via salivary conditioning ● Acquisition - Initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response ● Extinction - Diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS) ● Spontaneous recovery - Reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response ● Generalization - Tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses ● Discrimination - Learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus (which predicts the
US) and other irrelevant stimuli Selections from: Learning: Classical Conditioning ● Learning - The processes of acquiring through experience new information or behaviors ○ Learning allows us to adapt to our environments and survive ● Ivan Pavlov - Was not a psychologist → didn’t like psychology - Physiologist - Researched digestive systems in dogs - While conducting his investigations, he noticed how the dogs would begin to salivate even before the food arrived ● Before Conditioning - Unconditioned Stimulus (US) = Unconditioned Response (UR) - Unconditioned Stimulus (US): ○ a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers an unconditioned response (i.e. Smell/taste of Scooby Snacks) - Unconditioned Response (UR): ○ An unlearned naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus (i.e. Scooby-Doo drooling) - Neutral Stimulus = Unconditioned Response ○ Neutral Stimulus (NS): a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning (i.e. a bell) - Unconditioned Response (UR): An unlearned, naturally occurring response (i.e.
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