Categorization may result in the loss of information Whenever you put a group of individuals into a category, you lose a lot of information about those individuals aside from the categories that they are in o Simple yes/no or all-or-none classification schemes can ignore the continuum that exists between normal and abnormal behavior
If 5 symptoms out of a list of 11 symptoms are required to be diagnosed with a disorder, what if a patient has 4 out of the 11 symptoms? Cutoff is arbitrary yet may have major repercussions for an individual who is not treated o Classification may be misapplied e.g. because of cultural differences BUT cultural differences between the clinician and the client may lead to both – overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of psychopathology - Characteristics of a Good Classification System o A good classification system allows professionals to communicate and make predictions about an individual o Reliability (agreement between clinicians using the system) Can also be thought of as consistency o Validity (accuracy) – usefulness of a diagnostic system Etiological validity – similar factors cause the disorder among the individuals within a single category Predictive validity – We can predict the course of the disorder/ what is the best treatment for individuals within a single category - Psychological Assessment o Critical in clinical psychology (get a lot of training in psychological assessment o What do psychological assessment procedures allow clinical psychologists to do? Observe a sample of behavior o Clinical Interview Sitting down with an individual, asking them about their symptoms, history, etc. Use information gathered to make a diagnosis Most frequently used assessment technique Relies entirely upon self report Includes an opportunity to observe non-verbal behaviors One limitation: potential lack of validity or reliability Patients may lie, try to present themselves in a certain way Unstructured Interview Usually non-directive (not going through a specific list of questions) Trying to prompt the person to give you information Let the patient direct the conversation other than you directing the conversation Structured interview Much more specified question and answer format
Are very helpful at making diagnoses that are reliable Very specified answers, have a specific order of questions Have much more RELIABILITY than unstructured interviews o Behavioral Assessment The identification and measurement of target behaviors and their controlling variables (both environment and organismic) for the purposes of understanding and altering human behavior Target behaviors are the behaviors we are trying to change SORC Model 4 categories of behavior that we assess R-Variable: Response/target behavior o What is the response I am trying to change?
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- Spring '14
- Abnormal Psychology, Major depressive disorder