Cephalosporins Another beta lactam group is the cephalosporins and are alike in

Cephalosporins another beta lactam group is the

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  • beckycole1975
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Cephalosporins Another beta-lactam group is the cephalosporins and are alike in structure to the penicillins. Their spectrum of activity is divided by four generations with each increasing in gram-negative coverage and a decrease in gram-positive activity (Arcangelo et al., 2017; Laureate Education, Inc, 2012). Cell wall synthesis is disrupted when cephalosporins bind to PBPs and deactivate them (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Each generation is used in treating different infections. First generation cephalosporins such as cefazolin work will in treating gram-positive skin infections, pneumococcal respiratory illnesses, urinary tract infections, and surgical prophylaxis (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Few adverse events occur with the use of cephalosporins; however, hypersensitivity reactions usually manifest as maculopapular rash and urticaria
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4 (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Cephalosporins are typically tolerated by patients with allergies to penicillins. Side effects that occur are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Monobactams Monobactams are another group of beta-lactams; however, the only commercially available drug is aztreonam (Azactam) (Arcangelo et al., 2017; Laureate Education, Inc., 2012). Like the other beta-lactams, aztreonam works by interfering with cell wall synthesis by binding to and inactivating PBPs (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Monobactams are useful in treating gram- negative infections such as Pseudomonas (Laureate Education, Inc. 2012). Local reactions and GI upsets are typical adverse reactions for this category of antimicrobials (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Carbapenems Carbapenems mechanism of action is the same as the penicillins and cephalosporins and are bicyclical beta-lactams (Arcangelo et al., 2017). They have the broadest spectrum of activity that is commercially available (Arcangelo et al., 2017; Laureate Education, Inc., 2012). Carbapenems are active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (Laureate Education, Inc. 2012). They are beneficial in treating polymicrobial infections, and meropenem has a low risk for causing seizures when treating central nervous system (CNS) infections (Arcangelo et al., 2017; Laureate Education, Inc., 2012). Neurotoxicity is an adverse effect with carbapenems along with side effects that cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Fluoroquinolones Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin are the most common fluoroquinolones and are bactericidal medications (Arcangelo et al., 2017). They inhibit deoxyribonucleic acid
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5 (DNA) gyrase and topoisomerase IV which interferes with bacterial DNA replication (Arcangelo et al., 2017; Laureate Education, Inc., 2012). Fluoroquinolones are used to treat urinary tract infections, pneumonia, STDs, soft tissue and skin infections, osteomyelitis, and traveler’s diarrhea (Laureate Education, Inc. 2012). Increase the effects of other medication such as theophylline, warfarin, tizanidine, and propranolol has occurred when taken with fluoroquinolones (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, and confusion are common side effects, and rare QTc prolongation, tendon rupture, tendonitis, and peripheral neuropathy may develop (Arcangelo et al., 2017).
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