Emotions are made possible and limited by the

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Emotions are made possible and limited by the linguistic and conceptual resources of a society. “Thus, there are complex linguistic and other social preconditions for the experience, that is, for the existence of human emotions. The emotions that we experience reflect prevailing forms of social life. 4. Emotions should be understood as active engagements. Emotions are not entirely passive or involuntary. Sometimes we can change the way we react to situations. Better to think “of emotions as habitual responses that we may have more or less difficulty in breaking” (152) Note : The claim that emotions are socially constructed is especially important to her position because underlying her argument is the idea that just as emotions are socially constructed, so too can they be socially reconstructed. December 11, 2012: Outlaw Emotions Values and Emotions Values presuppose emotions: “if we had no emotional responses to the world it is inconceivable that we should ever come to value one state of affairs more highly than another” (153) Emotions presuppose values: “The object of an emotion – that is – the object of fear, grief, pride, and so on – is a complex state of affairs that is appraised or evaluated by the individual. For instance, my pride in a friend's achievement necessarily incorporates the value judgment that my friend has done something worthy of admiration” “Emotions and evaluations, then, are logically or conceptually connected” (153) Cannot have emotions without values, cannot have values without emotions Emotions and Observations Observation influences and may even partially constitute emotions; emotions depend on how we perceive a situation and on how we have learned to react to it. But emotions shape, direct, and even partially define observation. (Jaggar's stronger claim) observation isn't the passive collection of data it is an activity of selection and interpretation what is selected and how it is interpreted are influenced by our emotions The Myth of Dispassionate Investigation Background: Science in objective and free of any kind of value, it aims to discover truth and uncover the structures of reality Emotions are subjective and value-laden; they “contaminate” and bias investigators
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Science sees itself as operation from a dispassionate, objective and value-free position. As a result, emotions are usually seen only “as distorting or impeding observation or knowledge” (155) Emotions can make valuable contributions to knowledge Social values are always at work in practice of science: They are “implicit in the identification of problems that are considered worthy of investigation, in the selection of the hypotheses considered worthy of testing, and in the solutions to the problems considered worthy of acceptance.” (156) Social values are also operative on a meta-scientific level, as answers to questions such as: What is science? How should it be practiced? What is the status of scientific investigation?
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