Norepinephrine same substances as the neurotransmitter but now called a hormone

Norepinephrine same substances as the

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Norepinephrine (same substances as the neurotransmitter, but now called a hormone) - Why would it be adaptive to remember emotionally charged events more easily? Carry greater significance if more emotion is involved - Effects are likely mediated through sensitized glutamate receptors and/or higher glucose levels in blood (which travels to brain) Glucose and Memory - In the brain, glucose may enhance memory directly or by altering the effects of neurotransmitters - Studies with sweetened drinks supports the role of glucose (‘sweet memories’ effect) - However, the effective dose is narrow—too much can impair cognitive functioning instead of helping it How We Remember Effective Encoding: - Allocation of attention (automatic or effortful) - Retrieval Practice - Rehearsal (maintenance and elaboration) - Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information already stored in memory How info relates to what you already know Giving examples Related to ‘ levels-of-processing theory’; the deeper the encoding, the better the memory Levels of Processing Study, Craik and Lockhart, 1972 - Subjects given long lists of words to make judgement about - Groups were given different things to pay attention to when reading the list - Results: Structural Encoding (shallow): physical structure of the word Phonemic Encoding (medium): sound of word Semantic Encoding (deep): meaning of word - The deeper the encoding, the more words remembered Mnemonics: Formal strategies and tricks for enhancing storage and recall (ex. Keyword method) - Use of visual imagery - Making associations - Rhymes or songs *pg 369
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Method of Loci - Visualize as you walk through house, or follow a familiar route, in your mind Encoding - Visual Imagery: Creating a visual image to accompany the information to be remembered - Dual Coding Theory: semantic and visual; two codes are better than one - Self-referent Coding: making material personally meaningful How Best to Encode Information? - Understand it; process on a deeper level - Elaborate on it; make it meaningful, look for examples - Visualize it; attach an image to it—dual coding - Personalize it; ask how does it apply to you\ December 5 th 6pm Health Science Building 1150- Practice Exam Why do we Forget? According to Fraud - Memories are repressed (motivated forgetting) - Initiated by trauma, can last for many years - Memories may be accurately recalled with therapy - Idea is controversial The Controversy - False Memory Syndrome: 1. Construction of memories for events that never occurred 2. A result of suggestion and reinforcement on the part of therapists 3. Controversy over whether or not it is a real phenomenon—psychologists divided Evidence Suggests: - Memories of abuse recovered gradually in therapy are more likely to be false than memories that resurface spontaneously and relatively suddenly (McNally and Geraerts, 2009) - In one study, 37% of the latter could be corroborated, 0% of the former (Geraerts, 2007) - Dream interpretation can create false memories (Mazzoni, 1999) Why we Forget, According to Science - Ineffective encoding (pseudoforgetting) -
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