And again we can compare the relationship of the two noun phrases to that of

And again we can compare the relationship of the two

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direct object. And, again, we can compare the relationship of the two noun phrases to that of the subject and subject complement in Pattern ITT: Ihe course is a challenge. Emma is the chairperson. In fact, the possibility of actually inserting the words to be between the direct object and the following slot can serve as a test for Patterns IX and X. That is, if to be is possible, then what follows is an object complement. Which of the following sentences will pass the “to be” test? Taro finds his job easy. Taro found his job easily. Pam found her job the hard way. Pam finds her job a challenge.
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(chapter 3: Sentence Patterns 49 If you have decidcd that the first and last sentences in the list could includc to be, you have identified object complements. The other w o, you’ll discover, end with adverbials that tell “how” about the verb. Sometimes the object complement is signaled by as, which we call an expletive: We elected Tom as our secretary. We refer to him as “Mr. Secretary.” I know him as a good friend. The witness identified the defendant as the burglar. In some cases, the as is optional; in other cases, it is required. W'ith the verbs refer to and know, for example, we cannot add the object comple- ment without as: *We refer to him “Mr. Secretary.” *1 know her a good friend. The expletive is diagrammed just before the object complement but above the line: as ~r i Wc | clccLcd | 'lorn \ [ secretary' This use of as is discusscd further on pages 283-284. CO M POUND STRUCTURES Ever)' slot in the sentence patterns can be expanded in many ways, as you’ll learn in the chapters to come. W e’ll introduce one common expansion here— that of coordination, turning a single structure into a compound structure. Coordination is accomplished with another of the structure classes, the conjunctions, the most common of which are the coordinat- ing conjunctions and, or, and but. The correlative conjunctions are two- part connectors: both—and, not only-but also, either-or, and neither-nor. Every slot in the sentence patterns can be filled by a compound structure: Cats and dogs fight, (compound subject) They either drove or took the bus, (compound predicate) The teacher was tough but fair, (compound subject complement) We drove over the river and through the woods, (compound adverbial prepositional phrase) I finished both my biology project and my history paper, (compound direct object)
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To diagram com pound structures, we simply double the line and conncct the two parts with a docted line. 'Ihe conjunction goes on the dotted line. 50 Part II: Tloe Grammar o f Basic Sentences Cats drove rough fight Thev teacher wa* \ x ; took | bus N'\ J filir project We drove and $ woods % In Chapter 10 we will take up the coordination of full sentences. 10 First identify the sentence slots according to their form and function to help you identify sentence patterns. Then diagram the sentences. (Note: 'Ihe list includes sentences representing all four verb classes: be, linking, intransitive, and transitive.) 1. The kids on our block and their dogs drive my mother crazy.
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  • Fall '18
  • mona
  • Grammar, Noun phrase

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