ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

Since every cent more that labor negotiates increases

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representatives come to the bargaining table determined to get as much money as possible out of management. Since every cent more that labor negotiates increases management costs, each party bargains aggressively and treats the other as an opponent who must be defeated. Integrative bargaining is a negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution. In terms of intraorganizational behavior, integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining. This is because the former builds long-term relationships and facilitates working together in the future. It bonds negotiators and allows each to leave the bargaining table feeling he or she has achieved a victory. Before one starts negotiating, they need to do their homework, which involves lots of preparation . During this first stage of the negotiation process, goals should be put into writing and a range of acceptable outcomes should be developed. It’s also helpful to assess what the goals are of the other party in the negotiation. This information should be used to develop a strategy. Like a chess match, expert negotiators have a strategy. They know ahead of time how they will respond to any given situation. The second step of the negotiation process is to begin defining the ground rules and procedures with the other party over the negotiation itself. Some examples are “Who will do the negotiating?”, “What time constraints, if any, will apply?”, "Will there be a specific procedure to follow if an impasse is reached?” During this phase, the parties also exchange their initial proposals or demands. When initial positions have been exchanged , both parties will clarify and justify their original demands, which make up the third step of the negotiation process. This step shouldn’t be confrontational. This should be seen as an opportunity for educating and informing each other on the issues, why they’re important, and how each arrived at their initial demands. This is the point where it might be wise to provide the other party with any documentation that helps support a position The fourth stage of the negotiation process involves bargaining and problem-solving. The essence of the negotiation process is the actual give-and-take in trying to hash out an agreement. Concessions will undoubtedly need to be made by both parties. The final step in the negotiation process is formalizing the agreement that has been worked out and developing any procedures necessary for implementation and monitoring. For major negotiations such as labor-management negotiations or negotiating a job offer for a senior management position, this stage will require laying out the specifics in a formal contract. For minor negotiations, closure of the negotiation process is nothing more formal that a handshake.
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A mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning and persuasion, suggesting alternatives, and the like. Mediators are widely used in labor-management negotiations and in civil court disputes.
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