The acceptor atom fixed in place in the crystal

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The acceptor atom, fixed in place in the crystal, becomes ionized (one negative charge) The absence of an electron somewhere is the crystal can be treated as a positively charged particle: a hole Holes are free to move around just as electrons do Concentration p of free holes ! acceptor concentration N A Potential From chemistry class, recall that each material has an associated electrical potential related to how hard it “holds on” to electrons. In semiconductors, this potential depends on the type and concentration of the dopants (donors or acceptors). For n-type, the potential is ! N = kT q ln( n / n i ) and for p-type it’s ! P = " kT q ln( p / n i ) , where n i is the intrinsic concentration of Si, k is Boltzmann’s constant, T is absolute temperature, q is the charge per electron. kT/q is called the thermal voltage , 0.0259 V at 300 K.
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EEE 5320 Bipolar Analog IC Design Lecture 2 PN Junction A PN junction exists where the doping changes from one type to the other. At the junction two tendencies balance:
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