Conformity Bias People tend to take cues as to proper behavior in most social contexts from the actions of others o Groupthink Causes collections of people to make much different decisions than the same people would make individually o False Consensus Effect Tendency to believe that other people think the same way you do Cognitive Heuristics and Biases o Over optimism People tend to think that good things are more likely to happen to them than to others and that bad things are less likely to be inflicted upon them than upon others o Overconfidence People’s overconfidence in themselves can translate into overconfidence in the ethical correctness of their acts and judgments o Self-Serving Bias External factors are to blame for my failures Tendency we have to use information in such a manner that advance self-interest and support our pre-existing views o Framing Simple reframing of a question can produce a totally different answer from the same respondent o Role Morality People adopt different moralities for different roles they eat in society o Cognitive Dissonance 6
Interpret new information in a manner that fits my original beliefs o Sunk Costs Can lead to an escalating commitment where people throw good money after bad in a deteriorating situation o Tangible versus Abstract Decision making is impacted more by vivid, tangible, contemporaneous factors than by factors that are removed in time and space o Time-delay Traps Underestimating long-term consequences o Loss Aversion People detest losses more than they enjoy gains Pre-scripting o Determining what you would do in unethical situations before being put in them so if you do get put in them you know how you should act CASES Soldano v O’Daniels o Two guys are about to fight at a restaurant o Someone from the restaurants went across the street to the Circle Inn to seek help o Asked bartender to call the police, but he refused to let the patron to use to phone or to call the police himself o One man in the fight shot and killed the other (Saldano died) o Man sues the bartender and his employer o Trial judge dismissed claim (summary judgment); plaintiff appeals o Ruling: Bartender/business owed duty to allow use of the phone o Reversed and remanded Harm was foreseeable` and could have been prevented Phone was in public part of inn and thus should have allowed patron to use Citizens United o Money in political ads o Corporate free speech Heart of Atlanta Motel Gonzalez v. Raich 7
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- Spring '08