O collapse subdiscussion bethani bowyer bethani

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Collapse SubdiscussionBethani BowyerBethani BowyerAug 19, 2019Local: Aug 19 at 8:27pm<br>Course: Aug 19 at 9:27pmManage Discussion EntryoDiscuss the difference between innate and adaptive immune responses. Be sure include first, second and third lines of defense. (USLO 7.1)Innate immune responseAre called innate because they are “built-in”, they are not acquired over time. They do not target one specific pathogen. They are non-specific because they defend against a wide range of pathogens.They provide a 1stand 2ndline of defense.They do not improve after being repeatedly exposed to certain pathogens. They have no “memory”.Adaptive immune responseThey are specific immune responses against a specific pathogen.They produce antibodies in response to foreign substances called antigens.They provide 3rdline of defense.They also have no “memory”.First line of defense(Physical Barriers) prevent microbes from growing and colonizing on the body. It is non-specific and has a physical and chemical barrier. Skin, GI tract, respiratory tract, cilia, eyelashes, and body hair are examples (Khan Academy, n.d.)Second line of defense(General Immune Responses) non specifically protect the body from microbial invaders. It includes cellular responses, inflammation, and complement. Complements, fever, and interferon are included for viral protection (Khan Academy, n.d.).Third line of defenseis specific. The exposure of microbial invaders is needed to develop immunity. Involves the development of specific antibodies (Khan Academy, n.d.)oDiscuss the different types of vaccines. Be sure to include advantages and disadvantages of each type. (USLO 7.3)
Attenuated- These vaccines are made by weakened pathogens. They have a long-lasting effect. They do require a booster dose. A disadvantage would be the potential for the patient to develop s/s of disease during the active infection (Parker, 2016). Examples are the MMR vaccine.Heat Killed- Vaccines made by killed pathogens. There is no risk of infection but a disadvantage would be that a higher dose is needed and multiple boosters (Parker, 2016). Examples are Hepatitis A, Influenza and Rabies vaccine.Subunit- Vaccine made by antigens of pathogens, not whole cells or viruses (Parker, 2016). The Hepatitis B vaccine is made in yeast cells so those allergic to yeast should not get the vaccine.Toxoid- Inactivated bacterial toxins that stimulate the production of antibodies against exotoxin as bacteria. Diphtheria and Tetanus are examples.DNA- Vaccine produced by incorporating genes for antigens into a recombinant plasmid vaccine. Results in the stimulation of humoral and cellular immunity without risk of active disease. Most DNA vaccines for humans are still in development (Parker, 2016).ReferencesKhan Academy(n.d.) Retrieved from -systems/the-immune-system/a/innate-immunity(Links to an external site.).

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