D) adults begin to encourage culturally valued skills as soon as children begin school.
PSYC7 Summer Session II 2015 9 Continued on next page Information Processing Approaches (Lectures 8/12-‐8/13/15 and Chapter 7) • Explain the information-‐processing approach and its application to development. • Identify the mechanisms of development according to the IP approach. • Describe changes in processing speed across development. • Define attention and outline its developmental changes. • Identify three ways that people allocate their attention • Describe critical changes in attention across the lifespan. • Define the memory capabilities—and limitations—that people have, and how does memory develop as we age. • Explain the roles of memory’s processes. • Identify what is involved in constructing memory. • Describe how new information can alter memories. • Describe changes in memory across the lifespan. • Define thinking and identify developmental changes in thinking. • Evaluate whether children and scientists think in the same ways. • Define scientific thinking. • Describe early Piagetian studies of scientific thinking, and explain their results. • Provide evidence that young children may engage in scientific thought. • Define metacognition and summarize its developmental changes. • Characterize neo-‐Piagetian explanations of cognitive development in adulthood. • Describe each of Schaie’s stages of cognitive development. Example questions: Unlike Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, the information-processing approach A) uses clinical interviews to determine a child’s stage of development. B) does not divide development into stages. C) characterizes each developmental stage by qualitatively distinct ways of thinking. D) views development as a discontinuous process. A major strength of the information-processing approach to development is its commitment to A) the study of imagination. B) flexible case study interviews. C) rigorous research methods. D) disproving other developmental theories. The information-processing approach A) overemphasizes nonlinear aspects of cognition, such as creativity and imagination. B) is better at analyzing thinking into its components than at putting them back together into a comprehensive theory. C) regards the thought processes studied—perception, attention, memory, planning strategies, categorization of information—as stagelike in their development. D) underestimates the individual’s contribution to his or her own development. According to developmental psychologist K. Warner Schaie, the first stage of cognitive development, encompassing all of childhood and adolescence, in which the main developmental task is to acquire information, is called A) achieving stage.