D discuss the principles of leverage that your

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d. Discuss the principles of leverage that your answers illustrate.
Sales Probability $200,000 0.2 0.6 0.2 P13–20 Debt and financial risk John Tower is the sole owner of Tower Interiors, and he has made the forecast of sales shown in the following table. 300,000 400,000 The firm has fixed operating costs of $75,000 and variable operating costs equal to 70% of the sales level. The company pays $12,000 in interest per period. The tax rate is 40%. a. Compute the earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) for each level of sales. b. Compute the earnings per share (EPS) for each level of sales, the expected EPS, the standard deviation of the EPS, and the coefficient of variation of EPS, assuming that there are 10,000 shares of common stock outstanding. c. Tower has the opportunity to reduce its leverage to zero and pay no interest. This change will require that the number of shares outstanding be increased to 15,000. Repeat part b under this assumption. d. Compare your findings in parts b and c, and comment on the effect of the reduction of debt to zero on the firm’s financial risk
b No of outstanding shares 10000 Sales Net income $200,000 -$16,200 $300,000 $1,800 $400,000 $19,800 Exp Std. Coefficient o c Interest payment 0 No of outstanding shares 15000 Sales Net income $200,000 -$9,000 $300,000 $9,000 $400,000 $27,000 Exp Std. Coefficient o
EPS Probability -$1.62 0.2 $0.18 0.6 $1.98 0.2 pected EPS $0.18 dev of EPS 1.14 of variation 6.32 EPS Probability -$0.90 0.2 $0.90 0.6 $2.70 0.2 pected EPS $0.90 dev of EPS 1.14 of variation 1.26
$1,600,000 $1,000,000 Retained earnings $1,900,000 $4,500,000 P14–4 Dividend constraints The Howe Company’s stockholders’ equity account follows: Common stock (400,000 shares at $4 par) Paid-in capital in excess of par Total stockholders’ equity The earnings available for common stockholders from this period’s operations are $100,000, which have been included as part of the $1.9 million retained earnings.

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