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What: Dutch “Boers” want to be their own state without British influence. Influx of British miners into South Africa sparked the war. The brutal conflict pitted whites against whites and took a large toll on black Africans. The internment of 100,000 blacks in concentration camps by British left 10,000 dead. Afrikaners conceded defeat in 1902 and
by 1910 the British government had reconstituted the four former colonies as provinces in the Union of south Africa. When: Late 1800’s- Early 1900’sWhere: South AfricaHistorical Significance: Leads to union of South Africa in 1910Fascism:Who: Mussolini, Hitler, Franco (1920s-40s)What: A system of government marked by centralization of authority under a dictator, stringent socioeconomic controls, and suppression of the opposition through terror and censorship. Had its heyday from the 1920s through World War II in Europe.Significance: Largely ran its route as a political system in the interwar period and during WWII, but also showed that states with common interests could transcend ideology (for ashort period of time, at least) to unify against a common enemy, as Nazi Germany and Communist Russia did in the early stages of WWII. Nationalism gave way to Fascism in the 1920s as the popular political order, and Western social-democratic governments and Communisms became dominant after fascist governments were defeated in WWII.Boxer RebellionWho:What: this was the popular peasant uprising in China (supported nationally), that blamed foreign people and institutions for the loss of the traditional Chinese way of life. "Boxers" were traditionally skilled fighters that attacked Westerners, beginning with Christian missionaries. After they attacked the Embassy in Beijing, British, French, Russian Us German and Japanese troops quickly retaliated and crushed the boxers. When: very early 20th century (1899-1901)Where: ChinaHistorical Significance: weakened the position of the imperial family, shift to modernization after the rebellion’s failure. The Chinese government had to pay for it and allow foreign powers to station troops in Beijing and at their embassies along the route to the sea. Led to other rebellions though. TotalitarianismWho: Hitler, Mussolini, StalinWhat: A dictatorship that exercises unprecedented control over the masses and seeks to mobilize them for action- a permanent and perpetually unfinished revolutionWhen: WWII (1940s)Where: Soviet Union, Japan, Italy, GermanyHistorical Significance: citizens lacked freedomLeague of Nations What: International political organization created after World War I to resolve disputes between states peacefully and create a more just international order.Who: US President Woodrow Wilson had long advocated for the creation of such an organization, but an isolationist US Congress failed to ratify the League of Nations’ charter.
Significance: Served as the first truly international and inclusive attempt at security and economic cooperation, where the founding nations joined arms under similar moral and ethical precepts. The United Nations would later fulfill the goal first pursued by the League of Nations.