The most likely source of this date in british

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The most likely source of this date in British historiography is Bede. Bede places the end of Roman rule in the same year as the sack of Rome by Alaric, i.e. 410. Rome fell to the Goths in the 1164 th year after its foundation. At the same time Roman rule came to an end in Britain, almost 470 years after the landing of Gaius Julius Caesar. 26 As well as considering how the year 410 came to exist within the historiographical understanding of Britain’s place within Empire, we should also consider how Bede discusses the event and how it sits within his text. Bede is known to use formulaic language throughout his work. 27 It is interesting to note that Bede only uses the formula that he uses for this event 5 times throughout the text (ex quo tempore), twice to describe the loss of the British provinces. 28 How he uses this formula may have important implications for understanding how the dating of 410 relates to other events within the text. In book 1, chapter 11 of the Historia Ecclesiatica, Bede describes the loss of the British provinces and the sack of Rome. He states: Fracta est autem Roma a Gothis anno milesimo CLXIIII suae conditionis, ex quo tempore Romani in Brittania regnare cessarunt, post annos ferme CCCCLXX, ex quo Gaius Iulius Caesar eandem insulam adiit. 29 His description of the events of 410 begin with the sack of Rome by the Goths. Then using the phrase ex quo tempore he begins the section where he describes the end of Roman rule in Britain. This phrase clearly links the two events, this may not simply be in terms of chronology but also in terms of causation. It may be that through the use of ex quo tempore Bede sought to judge the beginning of the chain of events that began the end of Roman rule in Britain, rather than seeking to date the end of the period specifically. Perhaps, rather than translating the phrase, ‘at the same time,’ (as Latham and Sherley-Price do) we ought to translate it to suggest it more as a result, i.e. ‘from that time.’ This formula is again used in book 3, chapter 11: ipsamque aquam, in qua lauerant ossa, in angulo sacrarii fuderunt. Ex quo tempore factum est, ut ipsa terra, quae lauacrum uenerabile suscepit, ad 26 Beda, Leo Sherley-Price and R. E. Latham, A History of the English Church and People , The Penguin Classics, Repr (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1977), p. 50.; Bede HE Book 1 chapter 11 27 Alaric said it- find footnote 28 Book 1, chapter 11 and Book 5, chapter 24 29 Bede HE Book 1, Chapter 11
abigendos ex obsessis corporibus daemones gratiae salutaris haberet effectum. 30 The water in which the bones had been washed was poured away in a corner of the cemetery, and from that time on the very earth that had received this venerated water had the saving power to expel devils from the bodies of those who were possessed.’ 31 This section refers to the miracles that came as a result of the burying of St. Oswald, specifically the water that had been used to wash his bones. Here we see an implication of causation from the use of the formula ex quo tempore . As a result of

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