Nors with large fan in are constructed with nmos

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NOR’S with large  FAN-IN are constructed with  NMOS transistors: k transistors in  parallel ~  k x W;  C, however, increases the load. ( 29 k DD V L W n k C p t 2245 7 . 1
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Copyright  ©  2004 by M   34 PASS-TRANSISTORS PASSING 1’S AND 0’ Let us consider the following two configurations     V A  = V DD  – V T                                                V is not quite equal to  0 v      NOT FULLY PASSING  V DD               NOT FULLY PASSING  0 v. THIS IS DUE TO WHAT IS CALLED BODY EFFECT. BOTH  SUBSTRATES ARE BIASED TO V DD   WHICH INCREASES THE THRESHOLD  VOLTAGE, V T BY A FACTOR OF 1.5 V. . B V DD V DD A
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Copyright  ©  2004 by M   35 TRANSMISSION GATES A TRANSMISSION GATE (T-GATE) IS A CMOS CIRCUIT THAT PASSES,  EQUALLY  WELL, THE HIGH AND THE LOW VOLTAGES. BOTH PATHS ARE EITHER SIMULTANEOUSLY CONNECTING OR  SIMULTANEOUSLY DISCONECTING  X  TO  F. A T-GATE DRIVES ITS OUTPUT  EITHER TO LOW OR TO HIGH EQUALLY WELL. EXAMPLE: !S S X F S F 0 1 HIGH IMPEDANCE:  Z X
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Copyright  ©  2004 by M   36 TRANSMISSION GATES ANOTHER EXAMPLE: EX-OR GATE  F = A   B THE SHANNON EXPANSION GIVES      F = A [!B]  + !A [B]
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