The technological improvements led to companies

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Chapter 12 / Exercise 8
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McEachern
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The technological improvements led to companies profiting from economies of scale and low production costs i.Highest wealth inequality ever seen in the U.S. c.Scientific management d.Employer philosophy: “If man is dissatisfied, it is his privilege to quit” i.Tempered by Welfare Capitalism 2.Employees/Unions a.Low wages and dangerous working conditions b.Frequent strikes i.Violence is not uncommon c.Weak public support and weak labor movement i.Rise of industrial unions and birth of CIO (1935) – John L. Lewis leaves AFL (but not without drama) ii.Competition from company unions – 5.8 million union members in 1921, 2 million members in 1931 3.Government a.From 1880 to 1930 there were some 4,300 federal and state injunctions issued against labor unions to halt organizing and stop strikes in particular i.Sherman Antitrust Act (1890): used to stop monopolization, but was often used against unions b.Federal and state troops often have been used to break up strikes i.Labor history is violent c.Early signs of government support of unionization i.Railway Labor Act (1926) ii.National Industrial Recovery Act (1933) – Declared unconstitutional
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Chapter 12 / Exercise 8
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McEachern
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©2019 NITTANY NOTES ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ANY ATTEMPT TO REPRODUCE THESE NOTES IS PUNISHABLE BY LAWNittany NotesCheck outnittanynotes.com for Online notes!| 814-238-0623 Tutoring by Tutor Doctor,now available for selected courses! LER 100.1Exam Pack #3 9 OF 26 GOUGH ANNOUNCEMENTS:Make sure to the Week 11 reading found on CANVAS under the Files tab. ERRATA:None NOTES BEGIN: 4-11-19 –III.LABOR UNIONS – HISTORY AND WHERE ARE WE NOW? CONTF.National Labor Relations Act (1935)11.Section 1: a.Establishes a public policy in favor of unionization and collective bargaining i.Promotes self-regulation at a local level (the government didn’t want to pass federal law about workplace safety, etc., so this allows businesses to self-govern) ii.Promotes industrial democracy & voice iii.Promotes efficiency (though right to strike is still important) 12.Section 2: Definitions a.“Employee” i.“The term "employee" shall include any employee of an employer” ii.Anyone who “perform[s] services for another and [is] subject to the other's control” iii.Excludes agricultural employees, domestic workers (maids, childcare, etc.), supervisors, or those involved in the transportation industry b.“Employer” i.“Includes any person acting as an agent of an employer” ii.Excludes Government (Federal, State, Local) c.“Labor Organization” i.“any organization of any kind, or any agency or employee representation committee or plan, in which employees participate and which exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of dealing with employers concerning grievances, labor disputes, wages, rates of pay, hours of employment, or conditions of work” ii.Or, simply…a group of workers who join together to bargain with employers over terms and conditions of work 13.Section 7:

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