Can measure the amount of oxygen that is inhaled and the amount of carbon dioxide that is exhaled Because it is proportional to the “burning of calories” since any combustion process requires the combination of the food component with oxygen to release carbon dioxide and water It is difficult to burn calories with exercise because you have to do a lot of work to get rid of those calories o Ex. APPLE PIE: 15
one slice = 300 calorie with ice cream = 500 calories. o How much exercise do you have to do to get rid of those extra 500 calories? Basal metabolic rate: varies on body size, gender o It varies depending on whether you're male or female. Women need less calories, smaller body size, than men do VIDEO 4: VARIATION IN THE BASAL METABOLIC RATE Example: o Have two cars with equal size gas tanks but two different kinds of cars. o Fill the gas tank with gasoline so the amount of potential energy is exactly the same because we've put the same amount of gasoline into the two cars. o The total amount of energy that is available is the same in both cars but those two cars are not going to run out of gas at the same time? o Significant differences: one car can be heavier than the other more energy to move it , if one tire is flatter than the other takes more energy to move it. Humans are biochemically individual o We don't use up the same amount of energy to do the same thing o Some people who have more efficient metabolism and therefore, they require fewer calories to keep their body functioning o There are different biochemistries that are involved, and that requires different amounts of energy expenditure. For example, low-carbohydrate diets, work far better for some people than for others. People with metabolic syndrome do better on a low-carbohydrate diet than others METABOLIC SYNDROME: 16
Blood pressure is high o When the systolic/upper number is above 130 and the diastolic is above 85 o D = diastolic = denominator Why do we have metabolic syndrome? o Part of it is genetic IS OVERWEIGHT GENETIC? PIMA NATIVE AMERICANS: o Mostly living in Arizona in the Southern US, o Some live in the United States and some live in Mexico. o A very large percentage of Pima who live in the United States are grossly overweight. o The Pima who live in Mexico, they don't tend to be as overweight as in the US. There is a genetic propensity for overweight but in order to bring that out, you also have to have a poor diet. BROWN FAT: call it brown fat because when you look under a microscope it literally looks brown. o They are more adept at converting their food components, burning those and releasing energy than our other fat cells o Obese rodents have less brown fat : which means that they are less adept at generating energy because they have fewer of these brown fat cells If you take some of these overweight rodents and you put them into a refrigerator, they will shiver, and shiver, and shiver, as opposed to a lean rodent that at first will shiver when you put it in the fridge. And then it
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