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INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT WEEK 35
21. Payne (2001) gave participants a computerized task in which they first see aface and then a picture of either a gun or a tool. The task was to press one buttonif it was a tool and a different one if it was a gun. Unknown to the participantswhile they were doing the study, the faces served as a “prime” (something thatstarts you thinking a particular way); half the time they were of a black personand half the time of a white person. Table 2–9 shows the means and standard deviationsfor reaction times (the time to decide if the picture is of a gun or a tool)after either a black or white prime. (In Experiment 2, participants were told to decide as fast as possible.) Explain the results to a person who has never had acourse in statistics. (Be sure to explain some specific numbers as well as thegeneral principle of the mean and standard deviation) (Aron, A. A. Aron. E. N. & Coups. E. J., 2009).Table 2–9 Mean Reaction Times (in Milliseconds) in Identifying Gunsand Tools in Experiments 1 and 2PrimeBlack WhiteTarget M SD M SDExperiment 1Gun 423 64 441 73Tool 454 57 446 60
INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT WEEK 36Experiment 2Gun 299 28 295 31Tool 307 29 304 29Source: Payne, B. K. (2001). Prejudice and perception: The role of automatic and controlled processes in misperceiving a weapon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 181–192. Published by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission (Aron, A. A. Aron. E. N. & Coups. E. J., 2009).In Experiment 2 the members were told to make a choice as rapidly as they could. Quicker reaction time fashioned a quicker and more like mean time with lesser standard deviations withinall groupings (black/white and gun/tool) that were fashioned in Experiment 1. The normal mean reaction time in Experiment 2 was close to 300 ms with an typical standard deviation of right

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