The end product of implementation phase a set of

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The end product of implementation phase: a set of program modules that have been tested individually.
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27 Integration and System Testing Different modules are integrated in a planned manner: modules are almost never integrated in one shot. Normally integration is carried out through a number of steps. During each integration step, the partially integrated system is tested.
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28 Integration and System Testing M1 M4 M3 M2
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29 System Testing After all the modules have been successfully integrated and tested: system testing is carried out. Goal of system testing: ensure that the developed system functions according to its requirements as specified in the SRS document .
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30 Maintenance Maintenance of any software product: requires much more effort than the effort to develop the product itself. development effort to maintenance effort is typically 40:60.
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31 Maintenance (CONT.) Corrective maintenance: Correct errors which were not discovered during the product development phases. Perfective maintenance: Improve implementation of the system enhance functionalities of the system. Adaptive maintenance: Port software to a new environment, e.g. to a new computer or to a new operating system.
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32 Iterative Waterfall Model Classical waterfall model is idealistic: assumes that no defect is introduced during any development activity. in practice: defects do get introduced in almost every phase of the life cycle.
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33 Iterative Waterfall Model (CONT.) Defects usually get detected much later in the life cycle: For example, a design defect might go unnoticed till the coding or testing phase.
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34 Iterative Waterfall Model (CONT.) Once a defect is detected: we need to go back to the phase where it was introduced redo some of the work done during that and all subsequent phases. Therefore we need feedback paths in the classical waterfall model.
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35 Iterative Waterfall Model (CONT.) Feasibility Study Req. Analysis Design Coding Testing Maintenance
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36 Iterative Waterfall Model (CONT.) Errors should be detected in the same phase in which they are introduced. For example: if a design problem is detected in the design phase itself, the problem can be taken care of much more easily than, if it is identified at the end of the integration and system testing phase.
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37 Phase containment of errors The principle of detecting errors as close to its point of introduction as possible: is known as phase containment of errors . Iterative waterfall model is most widely used model. Almost every other model is derived from the waterfall model.
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Prototyping model The basic idea in Prototype model is that instead of freezing the requirements before a design or coding can proceed, a throwaway prototype is built to understand the requirements.
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