Final Exam Review BIOGEO.docx

Swimming or other barrier crossing ability larger

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swimming or other barrier crossing ability – larger islands more likely to be seen and colonized than smaller islands - Passive plant dispersers also influence by island size Forest Fragmentation - Islands of interest to conservation biologists include forest fragments - Continuous forest habitat gets broken up gradually - Leads to local loss of forest species as fragments become too small to support them and too distant to allow immigration Use of IBT in terrestrial biodiversity conservation - Think about national parks and the size and number of species present - Will one big park have more species than the equivalent areas of many small parks or reserves Connectivity Open vs closed systems – equilibrium vs non - ‘flow rate’ depends on many biotic and abiotic attributes that influence exchange rate among spatial units o the role that food webs and abiotic transport have in habitat connectivity and the patterns that arise in them - distance (space) and time are critical to understanding how connected spaces (habitats) are o connectivity vie energy and nutrient flows may be independent of close spatial connectivity Abiotic vs Biotic transport boundaries - transport across boundaries occurs via abiotic and/or biotic vectors - abiotic transport often controlled by energy dissipation processes such as advection and diffusion o abiotic flows can be explained by the laws that govern physical and chemical laws - organize trophic flows by origin and destination: water and land Movement of Prey - facilitated by o accidental (winds) o a product of life history (migration, ontogenetic habitat switch)
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o interactions (interference, competition) - prey input allows predators to increase locally - top down effects: can occur when subsidized consumers increase densities and depress local resources Life-history migrations of prey have a variety of spatial scale connectedness - the can transport prey at great distances - they can provide resources at very small distances - they can occur at a variety of temporal scale connectedness too Movement of Consumers - fine scales (local foraging paths) - Board scales (long distance migration; birds of prey, marine animals) - Migration based on relative profitability of forage intake - However some consumers move into habitats with relatively low productivity to avoid interference or predation (eg. during reproductive cycles) Evolution and Speciation Scale: 1. Evolution – genetically controlled changes in physiology, anatomy and behaviour that occurs to a species over time a. Microevolution (within species or population) b. Macroevolution (within broader taxonomic groups 2. Speciation – development of two or more genetically differentiable species from a single common ancestor a. Results from evolutionary changes, but not all evolutionary change leads to the development of two or more species from a common ancestor Main mechanisms of genetic differentiation - For selection to occur and speciation we need variability Mechanisms of Genetic Differentiation -
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