Why We Dream•Unsure exactly why we dream, but involved in:1.processing emotional memories2.integrating new experiences with established memories3.learning new strategies, ways of doing things4.simulating threatening events so we can better cope with them in everyday life5.reorganizing Freud’s Dream Protection TheoryDuring sleep, the ego is less able to keep our sexual & aggressive instincts under controlDreams transform our sexual and aggressive instincts into symbols that represent wish fulfillmentRequire interpretation to reveal true meaning manifest content: details of the dream that you would sharelatent content: hidden meaning of the dreamActivation-Synthesis Theory
•Dreams are the activated brain’s attempt to make sense of random, internally generated neural signals during REM sleepoAcetylcholine activates nerve cells in the Ponsopons send signals to forebrain, which tries to make sense of itoLower levels of serotonin and norepinephrine associated with decreased reflective thought, reasoning, attention, memory.oAmygdala activated, adding emotions to the mix!Neurocognitive Perspective •Dreams are the meaningful product of our “cognitive capacities”oreflect our gradual developmentodictate the content of our dreams•Evidenceochildren’s dreams are simple, lacking movement, negative emotionalityochildren’s dreams are also more infrequentoadult’s dreams are more complex, bizarreHallucinations•Perceptual experiences in the absence of external stimuli (aka seeing/ hearing things that aren't really there)•Visual auditory cortex are active when people report hearing or seeing things ounderscores link between perceptual experiences and brain activity!•10-39% of population reports having at least oneChapter 6 Classical and Operant conditioning Learning•Change in an organism’s behavior or thought as a result of experience•Sensitization— responding more strongly to the same stimulus over timeoE.g. dangerous, irritating (someone mimicking you)•Habituation— responding less strongly to the same stimulus over timeoE.g. loud snorers don’t hear themselves (eventually you stop hearing them)Types of Learning•Classical Conditioning— learning to link two stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an event to which we have a reaction Associative Learning•British Associationists (1800s): school of thinkers who believed that we acquire all of our knowledge by conditioning •Conditioning— form associations between stimulionce connection is made, we only need one element to retrieve the other from memory•Simple associations— mental building blocks for higher order thinking
Ivan Pavlov•Russian physiologist and 1904 Nobel Prize winner•Most famous for work on digestion of dog•Made an unexpected discovery about how animals learning•Became known as classical conditioning!