East timor former portuguese colony late anti

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East Timor: Former Portuguese colony Late anti-colonial struggle Brief independence was quashed by an invasion from Indonesian Military Led to occupation and subjugation of East Timor East Timor - Military Control Governed by military Economy was dominated by military enterprises including coffee and cloves Migration and settlement from outside East Timor Fretilin: Tried to force hand of indonesia government to move towards other government arrangements
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Indepedence Movement: Xanama East TImor Independence: 1991 Massacre builds international pressure Role of Catholic Church and Fretilin Referendum demanded via mass protests Vote on Aug 30, 1999 78.5 reject indonesian government’s autonomy proposal Militias attached to Indonesia military caused internal refugee crisis displacing 200,000 people Irian Jaya - West Papua Late integration into Indonesia Republic Dutch controlled territory under 1963 “Act of Free Choice” in 1969 took place with questionable results Grasberg Copper and Gold Mine Papua Independence Movement: Democracy changes how to deal with Papuan grievances Wahid’s dialogue goes nowhere Special Autonomy agreement rejected “No More East Timores” Present PRoblems in West Papua: Lack of health and education facilities particularly in the interior Death of employment opportunities for natives Co-optation of local leaders by the government (One more point) Megawati’s Policies: Treated harshly to separatists and separatism Reduced effectiveness of the autonomy agreement Created new region, Papua Barat, and failed to establish another Use of hardline intelligence and military officers in the region Key Questions: How did Aceh fair under the New Order Regime? How did the GAM form? What were their tactics and objectives? How did the fall of the New Order Regime impact the political situation in Aceh? Why did Ace achieve autonomy? How has Aceh fared since autonomy granted?
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Aceh: Conflict between ullebalong and ulama Social revolution overthrew ullebalong Reaction to 1954 Rebellion Outcomes: 1. Violence by Indonesian military created precedent 2. Elites define objectives in regionalist terms Waves of GAM (Free Aceh Movement) 1976 First mobilization Crushed by military Lacked connection to Islam Late 1980’s reemergence Garnering local support Common grievances against Indonesian government Democracy and Mobilization of Independence Movement 1. Institutional Megawati’s Aceh Policy: After the Tsunami of 2005
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