Association does not imply causation statistics

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Association does not imply causation!
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5Confounding VariableA third variable that is associated with both the explanatory variable and the response variable is called a confounding variableA confounding variable can offer a plausible explanation for an association between the explanatory and response variablesWhenever confounding variables are present (or may be present), a causal association cannot be determined
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5Confounding VariableExplanatory VariableResponse VariableConfounding Variable?
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5TVs and Life ExpectancyNumber of TVs per capitaLife ExpectancyWealth?
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5Confounding VariableFor each of the following relationships, identify a possible confounding variable:1.More ice cream sales have been linked to more deaths by drowning.2.The total amount of beef consumed and the total amount of pork consumed worldwide are closely related over the past 100 years.3.People who own a yacht are more likely to buy a sports car.4.Air pollution is higher in places with a higher proportion of paved ground relative to grassy ground.5.People with shorter hair tend to be taller.
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5Experiment vs Observational StudyAn observational studyis a study in which the researcher does not actively control the value of any variable, but simply observes the values as they naturally existAn experiment is a study in which the researcher actively controls one or more of the explanatory variables
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5Observational StudiesThere are almost always confounding variables in observational studiesObservational studies can almost never be used to establish causationObservational studies can almost never be used to establish causationObservational studies can almost never be used to establish causation
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5Kindergarten and CrimeDoes Kindergarten Lead to Crime?Yes, according to research conducted by New Hampshire state legislature Bob Kingsbury“Kingsbury (R-Laconia), 86, recently claimed that analyses he’s been carrying out since 1996 show that communities in his state that have kindergarten programs have up to 400% more crime than localities whose classrooms are free of finger-painting 5-year-olds. Pointing to his hometown of Laconia, the largest of 10 communities in Belknap County, the legislator noted that it has the only kindergarten program in the county and the most crime, including most or all of the county’s rapes, robberies, assaults and murders.”Szalavitz, M. “Does Kindergarten Lead to Crime? Fact-Checking N.H. Legislator’s `Research’,” healthland.time.com, 7/6/12.
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5Texas GOP PlatformA few days later, the Texas GOP 2012 Platform announced that it opposed early childhood educationCausation or just association?

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