Rank ordering of events with equal intervals and a true zero point ◦ Physical measurements ◦ Someone who weighs 100lbs weights twice as much as someone who is 200lbs Scales • Mood - interval • Political - nominal • 4-star system of rating restaurants - ordinal • Reaction time - ratio • NFL Jersey numbers - nominal • IQ - interval • Sizes of t-shirts - ordinal Multiple Methods (Converging Operations) • Using multiple measures will increase reliability • Multiple methods ◦ You are assessing the behavior and the relationship from multiple per- spective or measures ◦ No method is perfect or definitive ◦ If multiple studies with different methods yield similar conclusions we can feel more confident about the relationship ◦ Using multiple methods in a study will give you greater confidence about the relationship you are seeing ◦ Allows us to get the best understanding of the phenomena we are inter- ested in • Example ◦ Hypothesis: anxiety is bad for health ◦ IV: anxiety ◦ Ways to measure anxiety
■ Naturalistic observations: look at behaviors related to anxiety ■ Individual differences on anxiety scale ■ People with GAD ■ Manipulating anxiety: give a speech ◦ DV: Health ◦ Ways to measure health ■ Self-report: different types of scales and questionnaires, e.g., a symptom checklist ■ Well-being and psychological health ■ White blood cell count, bp, heart rate, etc (physical measures) ■ Behavioral reports (doctor visits) What are the conceptual variables and how to test them? 1. Compared to negative mood, a positive mood will facilitate memory for social in- formation but not non-social information ◦ IV: mood, social; DV: memory ◦ Memory task 2. Alcohol will impair functioning in the frontal lobes as well as lead to greater levels of disinhibition compared to control ◦ IV: alcohol consumption; DV: brain activity, disinhibition ◦ Brain scan, see if they would do something they wouldn't normally do or reaction time measures 3. Maximizers will be more happy with small purchases than satisficers, but the op- posite will hold true for large purchases ◦ IV: maximizer vs satisficers; DV: small vs large purchase ◦ Field study, ask people how happy they are with their purchases 4. Under the age of 2.5 years, children will be less able to translate symbols into real life information, at about age 2.5-3 years, they will begin to learn to use symbols effectively ◦ IV: age; DV: use of symbols ◦ Look at a bunch of 2 year olds and 3 year old, or follow a kid from 2 to 3. Test their ability to translate symbols
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- Spring '12
- Experimental Psychology, Cronbach, Col lege