The most common example used to illustrate quaternary structure is the

The most common example used to illustrate quaternary

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the quaternary structure. The most common example used to illustrate quaternary structure is the hemoglobin protein. 34. What is a “nucleotide”? ANS:- A nucleotide is the basic structural unit and building block for DNA. These building blocks are hooked together to form a chain of DNA. 35. What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide? ANS:- a) five-sided sugar b) phosphate group c) nitrogenous base (nitrogen containing) 36. What are the differences between DNA and RNA? ANS: - DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) a) The genetic material in all a) Structural component of ribosomes cellular organisms. b) Involved with energy transfers b) Double Stranded c) Involved with the translation of the genetic code into proteins. c) A - T d) Single Stranded e) A – U 37. What is entropy? ANS: - a thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system's thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work, often interpreted as the degree of -- disorder or randomness in the system. 38. What is a monomer? ANS:- One unit (amino acids - proteins) (lipids- glycerol and fatty acids) (nucleic acids- nucleotides) 39. What is a dimmer? ANS:- Two Units 40. What is a polymer? ANS:- Many Units 41. Name and draw the functional groups we talked about. ANS:- (ie.) Hydroxyl -OH
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Ketone: O=C Aldehyde: O=C-H Amine: H-N-H Carboxyl: O=C-OH 42. What is a geometric isomer? ANS:- Geometric isomers are chemical species with the same type and quantity of atoms as another species, yet having a different geometric structure. Atoms or groups exhibit different spatial arrangements on either side of a chemical bond or ring structure. Same chemical and structural formula except for orientation in space. 43. What is a structural isomer? ANS:- Structural Isomer are organic compounds that share the same chemical formula but different arrangement of atoms. 44. What is an enantiomer? ANS:- An enantiomer is one of the two molecules that are mirror images of each other and are non- superposable. Enantiomers have identical chemical and physical properties except for their ability to rotate plane-polarized light (+/-) by equal amounts but in opposite directions. Enantiomers interact differently with other chiral molecules i.e. biologically active molecules as amino acids, sugars, steroids etc. This means that some molecules have, for example, different odors. Limonene is just such a case. 45. What are the characteristics of a phospholipids molecule? ANS:- A structure with a hydrophilic head composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and phosphates and two hydrophobic legs composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Hydrophilic: loves water Hydrophobic: hates water 46. What is the difference between a condensation reaction and a hydrolysis reaction? ANS:- Condensation : A type of reaction in which a H+ is removed from one molecule while an OH- is removed from another. (H2O is made) Hydrolysis : The opposite of condensation, occurs during the digestion (break down) of complex molecules. (H2O breaks down the molecules)
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