Piety remained important religious ideals and

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piety remained important religious ideals and fundamental cultural values throughout the subsequent history of Chinese civilization, and they still remain important today. -In the tomb, there are cooking bowls, respect and honoring gods after their death The Shang-Zhou transition: gradual replacement of Shang Di with Tian (lit. "Heaven," "sky") Heaven as a moral force, NOT creator God -From a Zhou perspective, Heaven was not simply content with receiving people's offerings and veneration, but was primarily concerned with their moral character, at the individual and the communal levels. Following the will or design of Heaven brought positive rewards, while transgressing against it resulted in misfortune and punishment. For instance, if displeased, Heaven could affect natural disasters or different kinds of scourge. These kinds of ideas were subsequently expressed in classical texts that became especially influential after they were appropriated by the Confucian tradition, which made them a centerpiece of its canon. -Such outlook brought about notable changes in the principles of ritual sacrifice. Sacrificial rituals were supposed to be performed with a proper frame of mind, becoming occasions for manifesting the inner virtue of the persons making the sacrifice. They were part of a far- reaching humanistic turn, and this worldly reorientation with important religious, political, and ethical implications, which blossomed during the Warring States period.
-A central feature of these developments-at least in certain intellectual milieus, which included the Confucians and other groups was an overarching concern with social structures and human affairs. From the Zhou perspective: mandate of heaven -Of heavenly mandate. The former Shang kings once had the moral right to rule, but due to the loss of virtue their descendants forfeited that privilege, having violated the moral norms of Heaven. Consequently, it was now up to the Zhou kings to rule over earth and serve Heaven, presupposing a peculiar reformulation of the dynamic -Relationship between the vital agency of Heaven and the king's authority to rule over his subjects. This set of ideas developed into the important notion of "mandate of Heaven" (tianming), which became a philosophical foundation of Zhou rule. -King/Emperor, "Son of Heaven" (tianzi), which continued to be used by the rulers of various dynasties throughout subsequent Chinese history 11/06/2015 Chinese mythology: Nuwa makes human beings out of yellow earth Chinese mythology: archaic sage-kings The five emperors(wudi) -the Yellow Emperor (Hua ngdi) -Zhuanxu -Yao -Shun -Yu the Great Confucianism- as the teaching of scholars who transmitted culture Confucius (551-479BCE) -Kongzi or Kong fuzi (Master Kong), Confucius -born in a respectable upper-class family that had fallen on hard times -a precocious child and a keen learner -Spring and Autumn era (770-476/722-481 BCE), first part of Eastern Zhou Dynasty: political fragmentation and social upheaval -How to revive Chinese society?

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