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11. Which immunoglobulin (Ig) is present in childhood asthma? a. IgMc. IgEb. IgGd. IgAANS: C Included in the long list of asthma-associated genes are those that code for increased levels of immune and inflammatory mediators (e.g., interleukin [IL]–4, IgE, leukotrienes), nitric oxide, and transmembrane proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. None of the other options are associated with childhood asthma.PTS: 1 REF: Pages 1308-1309 12. Which T-lymphocyte phenotype is the key determinant of childhood asthma? a. Cluster of differentiation (CD) 4 T-helper Th1lymphocytesb. CD4 T-helper Th2lymphocytesc. CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytesd. Memory T lymphocytesANS: B Asthma develops because the Th2response (in which CD4 T-helper cells produce specific cytokines, such as interleukin [IL]–4, IL-5, and IL-13) promotes an atopic and allergic response in the airways. This selection is the only option that accurately identifies the appropriate T-lymphocyte phenotype.
PTS: 1 REF: Page 130913. Which cytokines activated in childhood asthma produce an allergic response? a. Interleukin (IL)–1, IL-2, and interferon-alpha (IFN-α)b. IL-8, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)c. IL-4, IL-10, and colony-stimulating factor (CSF)d. IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13ANS: D Related to asthma, IL-4 and IL-13 are particularly important for B-cell switching to favor immunoglobulin E (IgE) production, and IL-5 is crucial for local differentiation and enhanced survival of eosinophils within the airways. This selection is the only option that accurately describes how cytokines produce a childhood asthmatic response.PTS: 1 REF: Page 130914. Which statement accurately describes childhood asthma? a. An obstructive airway disease characterized by reversible airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and inflammationb. A pulmonary disease characterized by severe hypoxemia, decreased pulmonary compliance, and diffuse densities on chest x-ray imagingc. A pulmonary disorder involving an abnormal expression of a protein, producing viscous mucus that lines the airways, pancreas, sweat ducts, and vas deferensd. An obstructive airway disease characterized by atelectasis and increased pulmonary resistance as a result of a surfactant deficiencyANS: A Asthma is an obstructive airway disease characterized by reversible airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and inflammation. This selection is the only option that accurately describes childhood asthma.PTS: 1 REF: Page 1308