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○Leftist Ba’ath coup in Syria - February 1966 ○Soviet Union’s urging of an “anti-imperialist” Arab unity - May 1966 ○Egypt-Syria Treaty - October 1966 ○Stepped up infiltration attacks against Israel (November 1966-May 1967) ○USSR gives misinformation to Egypt that Israel is about to attack Syria ○Nasser expels UNEF and moves troops to Israel’s borders and makes bellicose speeches ○Soviets tell Egypt that Israel is on the verge of attacking Syria – Nasser sends troops towards Israel. Everyone gets excited in the Arab world, including Jordanian King Hussein. ○Israelis go to the US – LBJ comes up with the Straits of Tiran Users Association. Egyptians had closed it off to Israeli shipping. Syrian-Egyptian-Jordan alliance. LBJ was, however, bogged down in Vietnam. ○Israel tells Jordanians that if they don’t go to war with them, they won’t touch them, but King Hussein is under domestic pressure to attack, so they conquer Jerusalem – sending 100,000 refugees into Jordan. Israel responses and recaptures, take West Bank, Sinai, Gaza and Golan Heights. Effects of Six-Day War:
○Moves Arab-Israeli conflict from back burner to front burner, for US and USSR. Relevant in particular for US, whose policies in ME were episodic at best (recognition of Israel, invasion of Lebanon). ○Defeat by Israel of Nasserist Egypt in 6 days triggers a response in the Arab world – “how could we have lost to the Jews? It must be that we have strayed from the true path of Islam” —> Revival of Islam. ○Israel strikes first and captures Sinai, West Bank and Gaza, East Jerusalem and Golan Heights The Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967 ●From War to War 1967-1973 ○The Post War to War 1967-1973 ■Kharthoum Declaration (August 1967): 3 No’s – No peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel, and no negotiations with Israel. ■UN Resolution #242 (November 1967) ■Rise of the PLO and the establishment of state within a state in Jordan ■Nasser’s War of Attrition 1968-1970 ■Civil War in Jordan - September 1970 “BlackSeptember” ○From Nasser’s Death to the Yom Kippur War ■Sadat replaces Nasser and begins turn to US but US doesn’t pay attention ■Limited objectives: Not to defeat Israel or to regain the territory lost in 1967, but to reactivate diplomacy by awakening the superpowers and improving, if possible, Egypt’s bargaining position with Israel by at least establishing a bridgehead on the east bank of the Suez Canal. Did not receive the Scud missiles and long-range bombers from the Soviets that he had wanted (causing Israel to not think he would start a war) he decided he would make do with what he had – SAMs, sophisticated surface-to-air anti-aircraft missile defense systems provided by the Soviets. ○The Yom Kippur War ■Arabs more coordinated this time around. Sadat made sure Syria was involved and would attack at the same time to force Israel to fight on multiple fronts.