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Saxon is being schooled." Strong perceived a "centrifugal tendency, inherent in this stock and strengthened in the United States." The time would come when the US Anglo-Saxons would assert themselves, backed by numbers and wealth, liberty and Christianity, "having developed peculiarly aggressive traits … will spread itself over the earth." Strong did not doubt that America's triumphant Anglo-Saxon expansion would be the "survival of the fittest." Lesser races would have to adopt Anglo-Saxon civilization in order to survive. Strong did not notice the contradiction between his Darwinism and his Christianity. A.T B.F From "AGUINALDO'S CASE AGAINST THE UNITED STATES" (1899) 22)This case was published in the North American Review, contrasting "American traditions of self-government with the refusal to grant this right to the Philippines."Aguinaldo said that if the "American nation … knew exactly … what is happening in the Philippine Islands, they would rise en masse, and demand that this barbaric war should stop…." By doing this America would "cease to be the laughing stock of other civilized nations, as she became when she abandoned her traditions and set up a double standard of government." Americans were deceived with claims that the Filipinos were "ignorant savages." Americans "repeat constantly" that the Filipinos could not govern themselves. The same might be said about the Japanese "sixty years ago" of the Americans when they rebelled against England. "Give us the chance", Aguinaldo appealed. Instead, Americans were fighting against freedom, betraying alliances made with the Filipinos, who had helped them defeat Spain. Aguinaldo did not realized that imperialism was hardly a “laughing” matter among civilized nations. 23)"American rule also brought with it American racial attitudes." Foner mentions Rudyard Kipling's 1899 poem about the "white man's burden" of imperialism. American imperialists agreed that empires in which whites ruled non-whites "formed part of the progress of civilization." Black Americans were sent to fight the Filipinos. These African-Americans noticed (in their letters) the racist practices they were fighting for. "America's triumphant entry into the ranks of imperial powers sparked an intense debate over the relationship among political democracy, race, and American citizenship. The American system of government had no provision for permanent colonies." Indeed, our Declaration of Independence affirmed every people's right to self-government. As an "empire of liberty", Americans had "assumed that new territories would eventually be admitted as equal states" inhabited by American citizens. After the "splendid little war", however, "notions of Anglo-Saxon superiority" were "more closely identified than ever" with nationalism, democracy, and "American freedom." This meant that Americans were ready to limit freedom to ‘Anglo-Saxon’ whites.
American leaders did not see the new colonial subjects as material for citizenship. Puerto Rico became a new kind of US territory, with no path to statehood. "Filipinos occupied a similar status." The Supreme Court upheld the new approach to American-held territory in what Foner calls "a significant limitation of the scope of American freedom." The Court said that Congress "must recognize the 'fundamental' personal rights" of the Filipinos and Puerto Ricans, but