InterviewDuring an interview, the requirements engineer asks predeterminedquestions to one or more stakeholders and documents the answers.Questions that arise during the conversation can be discussed immedi-
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263Eliciting Requirements ately, and the requirements engineer may uncover subconsciousrequirements through clever questions. Interviews can be employedduring the entire development phase of the system. An experiencedinterviewer individually controls the course of the conversation, com-pletely commits herself to each stakeholder, inquires about specificaspects, and thus ensures the completeness of the answers. The mostprominent disadvantage of this elicitation technique is that it is verytime-consuming.QuestionnaireQuestionnaire: Making use of open and/or closed questions (e.g., mul-tiple choice questions) is another way of eliciting requirements fromstakeholders. If there are a large number of participants that must besurveyed, an online questionnaire is a viable option. Questionnairescan elicit a magnitude of information in a short amount of time and atlow costs. As long as answers are predetermined, even stakeholdersthat are not able to explicitly express their knowledge can deliver anassessment. A disadvantage of using a questionnaire is that it can beonly employed to gather requirements the requirements engineeralready knows or conjectures. Creating a proper questionnaire is oftentricky and time-consuming and requires thorough knowledge of thedomain in question and the psychological guidelines for creating ques-tionnaires. In addition, as opposed to interviews, questionnaires do notprovide immediate feedback between the surveyor and the surveyed,so it becomes apparent that questions were forgotten or badly formu-lated only once the questionnaires have been evaluated.3.3.3Creativity TechniquesEstablishing innovationsCreativity techniques serve the purpose of developing innovative require-ments, delineating an initial vision of the system, and eliciting excitementfactors. Creativity techniques are usually not well suited for establishingfine-grained requirements about the system behavior. The following crea-tivity techniques are commonly used [Maiden and Gizikis 2001]: BrainstormingDuring brainstorming, ideas are collected within a certain time frame,usually in groups of 5 to 10 people. The ideas are documented by amoderator without discussing, judging, or commenting on them atfirst. Participants use ideas of other participants to develop new origi-nal ideas or to modify existing ideas. After that, the collected ideas aresubjected to a thorough analysis. This technique is especially effectivewhen a large number of people of different stakeholder groups are
3.3Elicitation Techniques27involved. Among the advantages of this technique is that a largenumber of ideas can be collected in a short amount of time and multi-ple people can expand on these ideas collaboratively. The unbiased col-lection of these ideas allows new solutions to pop up. Brainstorming is
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