Come to their assistance and to save the revolution

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come to their assistance and to save the Revolution. Napoleon agreed to participate in a coup d’étatwith one of the members of the Directory on November 9, 1799 (the 18thof Brumaire), and Bonaparte was named “temporary consul.” Shortly he would be named First Consul, and then Consul for Life, and though he governed in the name of the Republic for a time, Napoleon would wield complete authority in France. Napoleon Bonaparte: Revolutionary Emperor Consolidating Authority: 1799-1804 Napoleon rose through the ranks of the revolutionary army and came to power ostensibly to save the Revolution. His regime thus embodied many of the principles of the French Revolution. It also, however, sharply repudiated others. Yet another constitution was enacted, this one establishing universal white male suffrage and two legislative bodies. Real power, however, remained with Napoleon, and in 1804 he abolished the Republic and had himself crowned Emperor. He validated this move by a plebiscite, the vast majority of French men supporting the move. He then set about reorganizing the state. He further centralized the administrative departments that the revolutionaries had created in 1790 by establishing prefectures and sub-prefectures in each, filling them with his own appointees, and administering local government policy that was determined in Paris through them. He created a central banking system, extended the road system, and instituted an efficient and orderly system of taxation, continuing
66 the Revolutionary reforms of denying exemption to the nobility. Tax reform coupled with drawing resources from conquered regions finally brought inflation under control. Napoleon continued the Revolution in driving forward legal reform, although here, too, there were noticeable differences. In 1804 he issued the Napoleonic Code, which brought uniformity to law throughout France and protected the rights of individuals. It confirmed the abolition of feudal privileges and declared all citizens equal before the law. Central to its provisions was the protection of property rights, and this contributed to the development of commerce because it regularized and enforced contractual obligations. The concern for the protection of private property also affected the Code’s provisions for family law. Paternal authority and the subordination of women and children rested upon a presumed natural supremacy of the husband and father, and males monopolized property rights, women and children having none at all in their own right. Therefore, a married woman could not sell property or run a business without her husband’s written consent, and children could not marry without their father’s approval.Napoleon also instituted educational reforms, embracing the Revolutionary principle that merit rather than birth should be the grounds for advancement.

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