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Mongol capitalDaughter of lower-level official but still became high imperial consort, exercised great influence over Yuan court, spread Korean influence in China through political authority and incorporating Korean females/eunuchs into Yuan court, had powerful institutional base (tax collecting gov’t authority created specifically for her use), reputation for corruption and extravagance19. Chosŏn (1392-1910)Yi Songgye founded in 1392, becomes King T’aejo (last one was Wang Kon-means progenitor)Followed after Mongol/Yuan period14th-20thcenturiesKorean peninsulaGrowing emphasis on Neo-Confucianism, Gov’t=State Council, 6 ministries, samsa, ongoing power struggle between king and aristocrats, flourished in arts20. Yi Sŏnggye (King T’aejo, r.1392-1398)Founder of Choson, “progenitor”Took control over puppet kings and proclaims founding of Choson in 139214thcentury-15thcenturyChosonAppointed Dynastic Foundation Merit Subjects such as Chong Tojon using merit rosters of poor elite, succession crisis involving T’aejo’s son led to Yi Pangwon eventually killing 2 brothers, Yi Pangwon became King T’aejong21. King Sejong (r. 1418-1450)4thking of Choson dynastyThe only monarch to have title “the Great”15thcenturyChosonPromulgated native Korean alphabet/standardized Korean pronunciation of Chinese characters in “Proper Sounds to Educate the People” (Hunmin chongum)breakthrough instrument for public education, created Hall of Worthies, innovative state policies, sponsored invention of advanced scientific instruments, completed Choson’s task of Confucianizing Korea
22. Hunmin chŏngŭm (1446)Created by King SejongDocument introducing Korean alphabet15thcenturyChosonBreakthrough instrument for public education, allowed written communication for commoners, standardized Korean, showed Korean language different from Chinese23. Literati Purges (1498-1545)Clashes between Neo-Confucian literati and Merit Subjects (aka meritorious elite)Late 15th-16thcenturiesChosonSocial upheavalsrise of Neo-Confucian literati (sarim) formerly based in countryside, important at county level rather than at court, King Songjong appointed them to central gov’t in order to prevent further expansion of meritorious elite, King Yonsan’gun’s mother Lady Yoon forced to die by poison b/c said to be jealous of royal concubines/scratched king, Purges of 1498 and 1504: Yonsan’gun ordered purge of sarim in 1498, 1504 purge stemming from Yonsan’gun’s attacks on sarim tied to killing of LadyYoon, immediate causes and long-term causes of purges-a lot of struggles btw descendents of Neo-confucian literati and Merit Subjects, 1519 purge resulted from sarimforcing king to delete 76 (about ¾) names from merit roster; merit subjects fought back and it was sarim who were purged, 1545 purge resulted from succession crisis after deaths of Kings Chunjong (1544) and Injong (1545)24. Korean Neo-ConfucianismYi I (Yulgok) and Yi Hwang (T’oegye)-prominent figures of the timeTackled problems in connecting the cosmos to human experience and morality16th