Why are people driven by particular needs at particular times One popular

Why are people driven by particular needs at

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Why are people driven by particular needs at particular times? One popular theory is Maslow’s hier- archy of needs , shown in Exhibit 5.5, which arranges needs in ascending order of importance: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self- actualization. As a person fulfills one need, a higher level need becomes more important. The most basic human needs are physiological —that is the needs for food, water,and shelter.Because they are essential to survival, these needs must be satisfied first. Safety needs include security and freedom from pain and discomfort. Marketers sometimes appeal to consumers’ fears and anxieties about safety to sell their products. After physi- ological and safety needs have been fulfilled, social needs —especially love and a sense of belonging— become the focus. Love includes acceptance by one’s peers, as well as sex and romantic love. Marketing man- agers probably appeal more to this need than to any other.The need to belong is also a favorite of marketers, especially those marketing products to teens. Shoes and clothing brands such as Nike, adidas, Tommy Hilfiger, commercial may have different interpretations of the advertis- ing message. One person may be thoroughly engrossed by the message and become highly motivated to buy the product. Thirty seconds after the ad ends, the second person may not be able to recall the content of the message or even the product advertised. Marketing Implications of Perception Marketers must recognize the importance of cues, or signals, in consumers’ perception of products. Marketing managers first identify the important attri- butes, such as price or quality, that the targeted con- sumers want in a product and then design signals—like price—to com- municate these attributes. Gibson Guitar Corporation briefly cut prices on many of its guitars to compete with Japanese rivals Yamaha and Ibanez but found instead that it sold more guitars when it charged more for them. Consumers perceived that the higher price indi- cated a better quality instrument. 19 Marketing managers are also interested in the threshold level of perception: the minimum difference in a stimulus that the consumer will notice.This concept is sometimes referred to as the “just-noticeable differ- ence.” For example, how much would Apple have to drop the price of its iPod Shuffle before consumers recognized it as a bargain—$25? $50? or more? One study found that the just-noticeable difference in a stimulus is about a 20 percent change. That is, con- sumers will likely notice a 20 percent price decrease more quickly than a 15 percent decrease.This market- ing principle can be applied to other marketing vari- ables as well, such as package size or loudness of a broadcast advertisement.
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