potential adopter to reject future innovations. f) Compatibility with needs g) Change agents seek to determine the needs of their clients, and then to recommend innovations that fulfill these needs. Empathy is required. h) Compatibility with rate of adoption i) Technology cluster ii) Naming an innovation. Selection of a name is a delicate and important matter. Words are the thought- units that structure perceptions. iii) Positioning an innovation –
63 i. An individual will behave toward a new idea in a similar manner to the way the individual behaves toward other ideas that are perceived as similar to the new idea. ii. Positioning research can help identify the ideal niche for an innovation relative to perceptions of existing ideas in the same category. iv) Indigenous knowledge systems iii. Changes sometimes forget that almost every innovation is evaluated by clients in terms of their prior experience with something similar. 3. Complexity i) The degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use. ii) The more complex an innovation is perceived, the slower the rate of adoption 4. Trialability i) The degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis ii) The more trialable, the greater the rate of adoption 5. Observability i) The degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others ii) Observability is positively related to the rate of adoption
64 B. Type of Innovation-Decision - refers to the number of people involved in the adoption process: a) Optional innovation decisions taken by individuals independent of others, independent of the decisions of other members of the system. b) Collective innovation decision require consensus among many people in a system or organization, allegedly causing adoption to be slower. The choices could be to adopt or reject an innovation. All units of the system must conform to the system’s decision once it is made. c) Authority innovation decisions involve only a few relatively powerful individuals who possess power, status, or technical expertise can decide on adoption or rejection by a collective decision. Collective and authority decision types are much more common than optional. Authority decisions have the fastest rate of adoption, but can be circumvented during their implementation. d) Contingent innovation decision type is the fourth type in which choices to adopt or reject can be made only after a prior innovation – decision. For example, an individual member of a social system may be free to adopt or not to adopt a new idea only after his/her system’s innovation decision C. Communication Channels- Mass media channels are relatively more important at the knowledge stage, and interpersonal channels are relatively more important at the persuasion stage in the innovation-decision process. The formation and change of
65 strongly held attitudes, however, is best accomplished by interpersonal channels. For successful technology transfer programme, the extension agents have to plan their communication strategy based on the actual information needs of the client system.
- Fall '19
- Diffusion of innovations, Adoption of Innovations